During the course of secularisation, numerous Provinzialbibliotheken (provincial libraries) were founded in Bavaria, for example on 28 April 1803 the then Provinzialbibliothek (today: Staatliche Bibliothek/State Library) as central library for education and administration. The book holdings came for the greatest part from the secularised monasteries of Kaisheim, Obermedlingen, Maria Mödingen etc. as well as from the Jesuitenkolleg (Jesuit college) Neuburg. They were complemented by collections from the former Neuburg Hofbibliothek (court library).
The library owns c.35,000 volumes up to a date of publication of 1900, among which are held 554 incunabula (prints up to the year 1500) in 435 volumes and, as valuable special collection the library of the Augsburg humanist Hieronymus Wolf (1516–1580) with 269 prints in 648 volumes.
The entire stock of library collections is property of the Freistaat Bayern (free state of Bavaria); the building itself belongs to the city of Neuburg.
During the Romanesque period, in 1310, the current library location was documented for the first time, when the Martinskapelle (chapel of Saint Martin) was built. From 1644, the Martinskapelle became the seat of the "Bruderschaft zur schmerzhaften Mutter Gottes unterm Kreuz" (confraternity dedicated to the mater dolorosa under the cross). In the same location the present building was created in accordance with plans by Franz Moritz von Loew in 1730/31.
After the confraternity vacated the building for the newly founded library, in 1804 the valuable library stacks from the secularised Cistercian monastery Kaisheim were mounted in the first-floor prayer hall.
The Staatliche Bibliothek Neuburg an der Donau (SBND; State Library of Neuburg upon the Danube) is an integral part of the scholarly library system within the regional state libraries in Bavaria. Its main tasks include the provision of information and literature to the city and region. Scholars, students and pupils at sixth-form colleges as well as all citizens use the library, whenever there is need to gain information or improve one's education for professional, private and training purposes.
As Regionalbibliothek (regional library) for the administrative district Neuburg-Schrobenhausen the SBND collects all those media with a connection to the region. As scholarly library, the SBND is part of the cultural life of city and region. It supports its regional users in their scholarly requirements. By collaboration with several institutions in the city and the administrative district, the library's performance is improved.
The Staatliche Bibliothek Neuburg an der Donau is subordinate to The Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (Bavarian State Library).