Eyn Manung der Cristenheit widder die Dürken

Bayerische Staatsbibliothek


The unique preserved copy of the so called "Turks' Calendar" (Rar. 1), which came to the Munich Court Library during the course of mediatisation, is one of the oldest datable incunabula. This propaganda pamphlet was written as "a warning for Christianity to fight against the Turks" against the backdrop of the conquest of Constantinople by Sultan Mehmed II. (1453) and ends with a New Year's wish for the year 1455. The "Turks' Calendar" was discovered in 1806 in the holdings of the Augsburg Jesuit college. Johann Christoph Freiherr von Aretin (1772-1824) made the find known through his announcements in the New Literary Gazette. He referred to this important work in several editions in 1806 and published a word-for-word copy of the text (Lithogr. 40) on 2 December 1806 (No. 23, Sp. 360-365). In the same year Alois Senefelder (1771-1834) returned to Munich at his instigation to found a lithographic institute together. On the occasion of a treatise presented to the Academy of Sciences on 28 March 1808, von Aretin had Senefelder produce a lithographic facsimile of the "Turks' Calendar" with as exact an imitation as possible of the rubrication in red. The announcement of this first facsimile provided an important basis for further research and sparked a controversy, some of which was heated, over the identification of print types and the time when the first printing offices were established in Mainz and Bamberg. Datum: 2019


Bavarian State Library, Department of Manuscripts and Rare Books

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