The massive Renaissance palace was built for Pfalzgraf (Count Palatine) Ottheinrich (1502-1559) as the residence of the principality of Pfalz-Neuburg. In 1665-70 the baroque east wing was added with the two round towers that dominate the surroundings. Particular highlights are the courtyard façade decorated in sgraffito technique and the castle chapel with frescoes dating from 1543 by Hans Bocksberger, the first Protestant church to be built in Germany. In addition to the Renaissance Knights' Hall and the baroque grottoes, the palace has important works of art illustrating the history of this principality. In the State Gallery of Flemish Art in the west wing are numerous works of masters such as Peter Paul Rubens, Anthonis van Dyck and Jan Brueghel.