China, Ming-Dynastie: Staatspapiergeld über 1.000 Käsch aus dem 14. Jahrhundert
Obverse: Inscription “Above: General government securities of the Great Ming Dynasty. Valid for circulation throughout the empire. 1 Kuan; below: At the suggestion of the Reich Treasury, the production and printing of Great Ming Dynasty paper money is ordered, which is valid for circulation in the same way as copper money. Whoever produces counterfeit money or puts counterfeit money into circulation is beheaded. Anyone who denounces a counterfeiter or hands them over to the authorities receives 250 taels of silver as a reward, as well as the criminal's entire fortune. Era of the tremendous war"; in the upper field designation and value, below illustration of 10 strings with 10 coins à 10 Käsch = 1.000 Käsch each as pictorial representation of the nominal value for illiterates, below text with threat of penalties for counterfeiters and field for dating (which was inserted handwritten); in the middle red stamps (seal of the office for state paper money of the Ming dynasty)
Reverse: Stamp (seal)
In China, the so-called "flying money", a preform of paper money, has been known since the 7th century AD. For their deposited money the merchants received deposit slips, which they could redeem at certain places. Between the 10th and 14th centuries further paper money expenditures took place. The oldest preserved paper money dates back to the Ming dynasty in the 14th century. During the Boxer Uprising (1899-1901) soldiers found a packet of such notes in the base of a overturned Buddha statue. From the 14th to the 17th century, the Ming Dynasty issued government paper money that circulated throughout the empire. The production, issue, circulation, confiscation and destruction of banknotes was regulated by law and carried out by an authority. However, the expenses often ended in inflation because too much paper money was spent. Paper money was abolished in the 17th century and was not reintroduced until 200 years later. In order for illiterate people to be able to determine the value of the notes, the denominations were depicted by Käsch-coins. In addition, the government paper money contained a threat of punishment for counterfeiters. The banknotes consisted of paper from the bark of the mulberry tree.