Gustav Kraus: the Festival Processions in 1835 and 1842

In collaboration with the Münchner Stadtmuseum (Munich Municipal Museum) the Bayerische Landesbibliothek Online (Bavarian Regional Library Online; BLO) presents two cycles central to the work of the artist and lithographer Gustav Kraus, which he created of the Oktoberfest Processions in 1835 and 1842.

Gustav Kraus: his Life and Work

Gustav Kraus was born on 30 August 1804 in Passau. His father, Heinrich Wilhelm Kraus, originally from Rothenburg, was garrisoned there as an officer at the time. His mother, Dorothea Juliane Kraus, née Roth, also hailed originally from Rothenburg ob der Tauber. Gustav Kraus, even though the child of Lutheran parents, received a Catholic baptism, since no Lutheran pastor could be found quickly enough. His siblings were Friedrich Wilhelm Kraus (b. 1807), murdered as captain in 1835 by bandits in Greece, and Friederika Christina Kraus (b. 1812), who later married an artisan in Vienna.

In 1812, the father was transferred to Donauwörth, where he died unexpectedly in 1815. The mother, therefore, returned with the children to Rothenburg, but succumbed there, hardly two years later, to a typhoid fever.

Since his youth, Gustav Kraus seems to have exercised his skills in drawing diverse cityscapes. Several prospects of Rothenburg, Nuremberg and of other places from the period between 1820 and 1824 still exist. A sheet dated to 1823, Kraus signed as "assistant bookbinder"; apart from a strong dependence on certain models (e.g. copperplate prints of Rothenburg, published by Johann Friedrich Schmidt in 1761/62) one may assume that his artistic training took place at first as an autodidact.

In 1824, Kraus moved to Munich and there joined the Akademie der Bildende Künste (Academy of Fine Arts) , probably the class on landscape painting headed up to its closure in 1826 by Wilhelm von Kobell (1766-1853). Also in 1824, he became a member of the Münchener Kunstvereins (Munich Art Association), where he participated, until his resignation in 1834, in the yearly held exhibitions as well. The contemporaneous art criticism even then did not take much notice of Kraus.

Lithography developed in 1796/1798 by Alois Senefelder (1771-1834) became from the start the preferred artistic medium of Gustav Kraus. Lithography was particularly at home in Munich and offered numerous advantages, including the quick preparation of the printing stone as well as the possibility of high print runs, since with proper handling a printing stone might be used almost without chronological limits. When in 1825, Kraus’s first lithographs appeared, he had already completely mastered this technique. Moreover, he used continuously (apart from two exceptions of 1848) the then more modern technique of chalk lithograph art that allows for particularly soft and smooth transitions as well as tonal values.

Over the following years and decades, the graphic work of Gustav Kraus was created in very quick succession. He was not part of the official Munich art scene, but as a lithographer worked in the field of the applied arts. Eugen Roth (1895-1976) very appropriately termed him a "photojournalist of the Biedermeier period". Accordingly, the motifs of his sheets depended on the taste of his audience, who were largely part of the urban middle class. Views of all kinds – cityscapes, landscapes, "modern" architecture and "historical" sights – may be found as well as portrayals of historical and current events. Kraus drew and lithographed the Sendlinger Bauernschlacht (Sendlingen Peasants’ Battle) of 1705 as well as events incidental to the Napoleonic Wars, obsequies, processions, festive entries of foreign princes, inaugurations of monuments, consecrations of the colours, parades or the events taking place during the uprising of 1848. In addition, there are portraits of the Wittelsbach family and of other princes as well as depictions of diverse uniforms.

Many sheets were made originally for local publishers such as Adolph von Schaden (1791-1840), who used them for publications entitled "Münchner Vergißmeinnicht" (Munich Forget-Me-Not, 1835), "Alpenröslein" (Little Alpine Rose, 1836), "Alpenblumen" (Alpine Flowers, 1837) or "Souvenir de Munich" (c.1839), which were aimed at the early tourism in Munich und Bavaria. Nearly all these depictions were also sold singly – whether coloured or not. They probably served as wall decoration in the homes of many families in Munich between 1830 and 1850.

In 1836, Kraus bought an estate in the Maxvorstadt (Löwenstraße 19, today Schellingstraße 26). There, he set up his lodgings as well as a workshop and a small publishing house. From now on, he published most of his own works. In the same year, he also acquired Munich citizenship (20 September). Two days later his son was born, who was going to die of Cholera on 18 December of the same year. On 18 October 1836, Kraus married the mother of his child, the 22-year-old Maria Anna Kunigunda Wanner. The couple only lived together intermittently.

Numerous journeys through Bavaria and beyond provided the material for landscapes and cityscapes as well as for military manoeuvres and other events. In addition, Gustav Kraus also referred to drawings and paintings of other artists, for example, when he was commissioned to create the lithograph of a work of art or when, as in the numerous depictions of King Otto’s (1815-1867; king 1832-1862) journey to Greece, he had not been part of the travelling party. While the works of the first category distinguish themselves by their particularly exact translation of the models, Kraus proved in the case of the latter his masterful handling of the free combination of the composition with decorative accessories.

From an art historical point of view, the lithographs of Gustav Kraus belong with the highest-quality works of their time. He shone by way of his precise rendering of the details as well as in the overall composition of his depictions. He exploited the technical possibilities of lithography to its very limits as far as the delicacy of his drawing style as well as shading were concerned. The period colourations that were done by Kraus or by his workshop are also of particular subtlety.

His final known works deal with the inauguration of the Bavaria on 9 October 1850 and show the Theresienwiese (Theresia Meadow), Bavaria and the Ruhmeshalle (Hall of Fame) after the completion of the entire ensemble. Gustav Kraus died on 15 November 1852 after long illness.

Even though on his lithographs several decorative figures of artists may be found, possibly representing Kraus himself, to this day no known portrait of the artist is preserved.

Gustav Kraus in the Collections of the Münchner Stadtmuseums (Munich Municipal Museum)

The 1977 catalogue of the works of Gustav Kraus lists 665 drawings, watercolours and lithographs. While most of the lithographs have been preserved in numerous exemplars in diverse public and private collections, the watercolours and drawings are unique and may only in part be accessed by the public. They are kept largely in private collections.

The Münchner Stadtmuseum (Munich Municipal Museum) owns the largest holdings of works by Gustav Kraus. In particular, in the two collections of the art dealer Joseph Maillinger (1831-1884), which in 1879 or 1889 became the property of the city of Munich , are numerous sheets by the artist. Further works once in the collections of Franz Xaver Zettler (1841-1916) and Carlo Proebst (1887-1970) as well as smaller acquisitions and donations arrived in the inventory of the Stadtmuseum (Municipal Museum). All of these groups of prints together cover the entire oeuvre of Gustav Kraus almost without gaps and complement it by a considerable selection of drawings and a few watercolours.

Literature (in selection)

  • Bayerische Vereinsbank [Hrsg.], Festzug zur Feier der Jubelehe des Königs Ludwig und der Königin Therese zu München am 4. Oktober 1835. Mit Beiträgen von Elfi M. Haller, Hermann-Joseph Busley, Christine Pressler, München 1983.
  • Karl Birkmeyer, Gustav Wilhelm Kraus. Maler und Lithograph. in: Oberbayerisches Archiv 90 (1968), S. 114–127.
  • Brigitte Huber, München feiert. Der Festzug als Phänomen und Medium, Neustadt an der Aisch 2009.
  • Christine Pressler, Gustav Kraus 1804 - 1852. Monographie und kritischer Katalog (Studia Artis Monacensia 2), München 1977.

The Pageant of 1835

Gustav Wilhelm Kraus
Festive procession for the celebration of the marriage I.I.M.M. of King Ludwig and Queen Therese of Munich on 4 October 1835.
24 sheets coloured lithographs (trimmed) with title page and description (2 pages)
Publisher J. C. Hochwind
Format each approx. 31 x 47 cm
Munich City Museum, Inv. No. G-Xc/6.1-24

In the year 1835, a triple jubilee was celebrated on the Munich Oktoberfest. There was the 25th anniversary of the wedding between the royal couple, Ludwig I (1786-1868) and Therese (1792-1854), to be celebrated, as well as that of the first Oktoberfest, which had taken place for the first time on the occasion of this wedding. In addition, there was the anniversary of the foundation of the Landwirtschaftlichen Vereins (Agricultural Central Association) of the realm, which had assumed an important role since the second Oktoberfest of 1811 as far as the organisation and running of the event were concerned. Even though King Ludwig I, who despite his love of splendour also possessed some rather parsimonious traits, had refused separate public festivities of his silver wedding, he had no objections to a connection between the wedding jubilee and Oktoberfest. The festive procession, which passed the Königszelt (Royal Tent) on Theresienwiese (Theresia Meadow) on 4 October 1835, became the most splendid pageant ever seen in the capital.

It was probably the demand in Munich and Bavaria, which induced the publisher J. C. Hochwind, to commission the artist and lithographer Gustav Wilhelm Kraus (1804-1852) for a broadly conceived set of 24 lithographs, which depicted this pageant in its entirety. In this case, the artist could avail himself of an unusually generous deadline for the completion. Many lithographs of the nineteenth century, which depicted current events, were published as soon as possible, often only a few days after the event. On the 1935 festival procession, however, appeared at first only one single sheet (not presented here), which depicted the complete scene of Theresienwiese, Königszelt (Royal Tent) and of several groups of the pageant, whilst the sequence of some of the carts in the procession were exchanged in favour of a more pleasant composition. The lithographs of the entire sequence of the festival procession did not come out before the year 1836, when they were published in four deliveries. In accordance with this generous allotment of time, the artist could work with even greater precision than was his wont. Gustav Kraus as is attested by several sketches and watercolours preserved in the Münchner Stadtmuseum (Munich Municipal Museum) as well as in private collections, had had the occasion to draw the single festival carts either before or after the pageant. It is therefore possible to imagine that he concentrated on the occasion of the pageant above all on the single people. The depiction of gestures and costumes display, despite being somewhat schematic, the high degree of precision, for which Kraus was generally famous. Only in the case of larger groups or of the diverse charioteers, the figures seem stereotyped and possibly do not always correspond to the real models. The comparison to the sequence in the festival procession, as listed in the printed festival report of the agricultural central association, allows one to recognise only a few discrepancies. The wealth of detail represented in the cycle makes it one of the highpoints in the oeuvre of Gustav Kraus .

There are few complete exemplars of the 24-sheet cycle; the exemplar owned by the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (Bavarian State Library) was lost during WWII, probably during the bombings of 1943-1945. By means of the digitised lithographs from one of the two complete sets at the Münchener Stadtmuseum (Munich Municipal Museum), access is not only provided to such a main example of the art of lithography for a wider audience, it also indirectly closes a grievous gap in the inventory of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek.

Introduction (Front Page and Text)

Festive processions by children, dignitaries and maids of honour in homage of the monarch were part of the standard repertoire, when celebrating the king of Bavaria during the nineteenth century. In the case of the Oktoberfest, such pageants had already been performed twice: in 1810, when the children of the Munich bourgeoisie paid homage to the newly wed crown-princely couple in the guise of personifications of Bavaria, and, in a somewhat enlarged format in 1826 for Ludwig I’s accession to the throne.

The history of the pageant of 1835, however, really begins in Franconia: in the year of 1832, the former imperial city of Nuremberg held a conspicuous historical festive procession, to display and celebrate by means of hundreds of participants their own history and importance. For a visit paid by Ludwigs I to Nuremberg in 1833, the pageant was repeated expressly for the royal guest, with an attempt to cover the rather “un-Bavarian” character of the procession by means of a hastily added group with a personification of Bavaria and white-blue colours. Ludwig I was enthusiastic about the pageant; the Bavarian Home Secretary Prince Ludwig von Oettingen-Wallerstein (1791-1870), who accompanied him, took up the Nuremberg idea and, barely a month, later he raised in a letter to the government of the Isar district (from 1838: Upper Bavaria) the suggestion, to use this procession as model for the 1835 jubilee. Then, the municipalities in the environs of Munich were supposed to have carts built for the pageant.

This initiative of the home secretary at first fell on deaf ears. Only two years later, by 1835, the government of the Isar district reacted to it, after a dedicated Oktoberfest commission of the government had been installed and the magistrate of the city of Munich had already presented plans for the jubilee festival. Different to the possible expectations of Prince Oettingen-Wallerstein , the Oktoberfest commission of the Isar district at first decided to orient themselves as little as possible on historical festivals or pageants in Nuremberg, Augsburg or Bamberg, to avoid unnecessary costs or even debts. The commission, however, followed the home secretary’s ideas as far as deciding that the single festival carts and groups should be organised and paid for by the single communes and cities of the Isar district.

The programme and designs for the pageant were created by the engineer and civil building inspector of the Isar district, Daniel Ohlmüller (1791-1839), who as the architect of the neo-Gothic Mariahilfkirche in the Isar Au (1831-1839), then under construction, belonged to the wider circle of architects esteemed and promoted by Ludwig I. It was only with a letter dated to 17 September 1835 that the communities scheduled for collaboration received the programme and plans. Nonetheless, with only a few exceptions, they managed to complete all budgeted groups and festival carts until 4 October and to transport them to Munich , where they passed the Königszelt (Royal Tent) on Theresienwiese (Theresia Meadow) in an over two-hour-long pageant.

The following schedule sorted in accordance with the groups of Ohlmüller’s programme, combines the lithographs with the text of the description, delivered together with them in 1836. The transcriptions were made to the letter. Trim lines in the text are represented by insertion of a "#" (hashtag).

|Title page|
Festive procession for the celebration of the marriage,
Her Majesties,
of
King Ludwig
and the
Queen Therese
to Munich on 4th October
1835.

Published by J. C. Hochwind
Drawn by Gustav Kraus
Laugh scr. Krämmer grav.

Kurzgefaszte Beschreibung des Oktoberfestzuges vom Isar-Kreis, zur Feyer der Jubel-Ehe Ihrer Majestäten ##:
des Königs Ludwig und der Königin Therese, am 4ten Oktober 1835 in München
im Verlag bei J.C. Hochwind in München

Wer diesen National-Zug in seiner vollen Großartigkeit gesehen hat, dem werden diese Bilder stets eine angenehme Erinnerung gewähren, um so mehr Jenen nicht unwillkommen seyn, welche dem Feste bey zuwohnen keine Gelegenheit fanden. Aus beynahe 1000 Mann berittener Bauern mit weiß blauen Fähnchen, dann derley Armbinden, mehr als 2 Compagnien Gebirgs-Schützen in ihrer eigenthümlichen National-Tracht, gegen 80 festlich geschmückten sechs-vier-und zweispännigen Wagen verschiedenster Art, bestand derselbe. Nahe an 2 Stunden dauerte er an dem Königs-Zelte vorüber, durch immer neue Erscheinungen frische Ueberraschungen und hohe Bewunderung bereitend. Und doch war diese lange Reihe blos ein, in den kleinsten Rahmen eingeengtes Miniatur Gemälde, deßen, was sich in unserm gesegneten Bayerlande regt, bewegt, was in selbem wächst und geräth. Sie bildete ein einzelnes Blatt aus dem überreichen, vieltausend blättrigen Buche des Volkslebens, das hier seine Blumen, Früchte, Garben, seine Alpenhütten, Flöße, Nachen, seine Schützen, Fischer, Schäfer, Landbebauer und Gewerkleute gesendet, von jedem nur ein Exemplar aus den vier Millionen, die draußen rastlos sich mühen und sorgen, Tag und Nacht im Schweiße ihres Angesichtes, ringend mit dem kurzen verhängnisvollen Leben, von dem ein ganzes Jahr nur einen so glänzend schönen Tag, nur ein freundlich umfassendes Bild bieten kann.

Glücklich der Fürst welcher über ein solches Land und Volk herrscht! [...]

[Der Rest des Beschreibungstextes ist im Folgenden den jeweiligen Lithographien zugeordnet.]


EN

Brief description of the Oktoberfest procession from the Isar Circle to the Feyer of Her Majesties' Jubilee Marriage ##:
of King Ludwig and Queen Therese, 4th October 1835 in Munich
in the publishing house of J.C. Hochwind in Munich

These pictures will always be a pleasant reminder for anyone who has seen this national procession in its full splendour, and be even all the more welcome for those who did not have the opportunity to attend the festival. The procession was composed of nearly 1000 farmers on horseback with white and blue flags, then their armbands, more than 2 companies of mountain troops in their own national costume, about 80 festively decorated six, four and two-horse drawn carriages of various kinds. It took nearly 2 hours to pass the King's tent, riding through constantly new appearances, fresh surprises and great admiration. And yet this long series was nothing more than a miniature painting, confined in the smallest frame, of what is moving, developing, growing and happening in our blessed Bavarian land. It was a single leaf from the people's abundant beech tree of life with thousands of leaves, which sent its flowers, fruits, sheaves, its alpine huts, rafts, barges, its marksmen, fishermen, shepherds, farmers and tradesmen here, each in just one specimen from the four million who restlessly struggle and worry outside, with sweat on their faces day and night, struggling with the short fateful life in which a whole year can offer only one such gloriously beautiful day, just one friendly all-embracing picture.
Happy is the prince who rules such a land and such a people!
[...]

[The rest of the descriptive text is assigned to the respective lithographs in the following.]

General Group (Images 1 - 4)

The pageant was opened by groups of carts from the district courts of Pfaffenhofen, Munich, Wasserburg and Landsberg, which formed in accordance with Ohlmüller’s programme an “Allgemeine Gruppe” (General Group). After two equestrian groups who with the "colours of Scheyern" carried the (not completely correct) coat of arms of the Wittelsbachs before the adoption of the diamond-patterned shield of the counts von Bogen, followed a personification of Bavaria as well as a cart for each of the eight districts (Regierungsbezirke) of the kingdom. Isarkreis (from 1838: Upper Bavaria), Oberdonaukreis (Upper Danube: Swabia and Neuburg), Unterdonaukreis (Lower Danube: Lower Bavaria), Regenkreis (Upper Palatinate and Ratisbon), Rezatkreis (Central Franconia), Untermainkreis (Lower Franconia), Obermainkreis (Upper Franconia) and Rheinkreis (Rhenish Palatinate). In this case, it becomes particularly clear that the depiction did not depend on the performers. In addition, the courts of arms of the three Franconian carts are not correct; the issue of whether it was one of the (rare) mistakes of Gustav Kraus or whether the armorial shields had been painted incorrectly by the communes that created the festival carts, needs to remain unresolved. Four further festival carts represented the four seasons before the group was completed by three carts of homage as well as by another personification of Bavaria.

|1|
[Obere Reihe - Titel] Königliches Landgericht Pfaffenhofen.
[Untere Reihe - Titel] Königliches Landgericht München.
[Untere Reihe - Beschreibung] Bavaria (Nymphenburg). Isar-Kreis (Schwabing).

[Aus dem Beschreibungstext Blatt I]
[...] Erste Lieferung, von I. bis VI.
Das erste Bild stellt dar aus dem Landgerichte München und Pfaffenhofen: Trompeter-Corps und Reiterei, die Landwehr eröffnet den Zug; an der Spitze ein geharnischter mit des Hauses Bayern altberühmten Banner von Scheyern. Unter prangenden Tempel thront Bavaria mit Speer und Schild (Gemeinde Nympfenburg), von weiß und blau gekleideten Mädchen mit Fahnen und Bändern umgeben. [...]


EN

[Upper row - title] Royal district court Pfaffenhofen.
[Lower row - title] Royal district Court Munich.
[Lower row - description] Bavaria (Nymphenburg). Isar district (Schwabing).

[From the descriptive text on sheet I]
[...] First lot, from I. to VI.
The first picture shows the following from the district courts of Munich and Pfaffenhofen: trumpeter corps and cavalry, the Landwehr opens the procession; at the top the famous pointed pennant of Scheyern with the House of Bavaria. Under the resplendent temple Bavaria towers with a spear and shield (Nympfenburg municipality), surrounded by girls dressed in white and blue with flags and ribbons.
[...]

|2|
[Obere Reihe - Titel] Königliches Landgericht München.
[Obere Reihe - Beschreibung] Ober-Donau-Kreis (Feldmoching). Unter-Donau-Kreis (Pasing). Regen-Kreis (Aubing).
[Untere Reihe - Beschreibung] Rezat-Kreis (Perlach). Unter-Main-Kreis (Neuhausen). Ober-Main-Kreis (Sendling und Thalkirchen). Rhein-Kreis (Aschheim und Kirchheim).

[Aus dem Beschreibungstext Blatt I-II]
[...] Nun folgen auf diesem dann auf dem 2do und 3ten Bilde Representationen der acht Kreise des
|II|
Königsreichs Bayern in National Tracht mit ihren Natur und Fleiß Erzeugnißen, durch das Wappen der Kreishauptstadt bezeichnet, nemlich Isar Kreis (Schwabing), Oberdonau Kreis (Feldmoching), Unterdonau Kreis (Pasing), Regen Kreis (Aubing), Rezat Kreis (Perlach), Untermain-Kreiß (Neuhausen), Obermain-Kreis (Sendling und Thalkirchen), Rheinkreis (Aschheim und Kirchheim); [...]


EN

[Upper row - title] Royal district court Munich.
[Upper row - description] Oberdonau district (Feldmoching). Unterdonau district (Pasing). Regen district (Aubing).
[Lower row - description] Rezat district (Perlach). Untermain district (Neuhausen). Obermain district (Sendling and Thalkirchen). Rhine district (Aschheim and Kirchheim).


[From the descriptive text on sheet I-II]
[...] Now following on this, on the 2nd and 3rd pictures are representations of the Kingdom of

|II|
Bavaria's eight districts in national costume with their nature and products of hard work, designated by the district capital's coat of arms, namely Isar district (Schwabing), Oberdonau district (Feldmoching), Unterdonau district (Pasing), Regen district (Aubing), Rezat district (Perlach), Untermain district (Neuhausen), Obermain district (Sendling and Thalkirchen), Rhein district (Aschheim and Kirchheim);
[...]

|3|
[Obere Reihe - Titel] Königliches Landgericht München.
[Obere Reihe - Beschreibung] Frühling (Freymann). Sommer (Garching).
[Untere Reihe - Beschreibung] Herbst (Planeck) Winter.

[Aus dem Beschreibungstext Blatt II]
[...] ferner der Frühling (Freymann), Sommer (Garching), Herbst und Winter (Planeck), alle in den treflichsten Gruppirungen auf beweglichen Wägen. [...]


EN

[Upper row - title] Royal district Court of Munich.
[Upper row - Description] Spring (Freymann). Summer (Garching).
[Lower row - description] Autumn (Planeck) Winter.

[From the descriptive text on sheet II]
[...] furthermore the spring (Freymann), summer (Garching), autumn and winter (Planeck), all in the most splendid groupings on moving carriages. [...]

4|
[Obere Reihe - Titel] Königliches Landgericht Wasserburg.
[Obere Reihe - Beschreibung] Bezirk Wasserburg. Bezirk Haag.
[Untere Reihe - Titel links] Königliches Landgericht Wasserburg.
[Untere Reihe - Beschreibung links] Bezirk Haag.
[Untere Reihe - Titel rechts] Königliches Landgericht Landsberg.
[Untere Reihe - Beschreibung rechts] Magistrat Landsberg.

[Aus dem Beschreibungstext Blatt II]
[...] Das 4te Bild zeigt von Landgericht Wasserburg auf 4 trapirten Wagen mit den Orts-Wappen fröhliche Jungen und Mädchen, mit, die königliche Namenzüge enthaltenden Standarten und Fähnchen, dann in Körben gefüllten Perduckten, die Namen der Knaben sind Ludwig, die der Mädchen Therese, sinige Anordnung des Gemeinde-Vorstandes Huber jener Gegend (Haag). Das Landger. respkt. die Stadt Landsberg versinnlicht unter Voranreitung des städtischen Bannerträgers auf großen Prunkwagen unter einem reichen Baldachin Bavaria mit des Füllhorns seegenreicher Spende, durch Religion, Künste, Wissenschaften, Vaterlandsliebe und Treue, Kultur und Ackerbau, Tapferkeit und Stärke, Handel und Gewerbe, in hübschen weiblichen Gestalten. [...]


EN

[Upper row] Royal district court of Wasserburg.
[Upper row - description] District Wasserburg. District of Haag.
[Lower row - title left] Royal district court Wasserburg.
[Lower row - description left] District Haag.
[Lower row - title right] Royal district court Landsberg.
[Lower row - description right] Magistrate Landsberg.

[From the descriptive text on sheet II]
[...] The 4th picture shows cheerful boys and girls from Wasserburg district court on 4 draped wagons with the local coat of arms, the royal name processions containing standards and flags, then produce filled in baskets, the names of the boys are Ludwig, those of the girls Therese, the order by the municipality chairman farmer for that area (Haag). The district court or city of Landsberg symbolises Bavaria by the city pennant bearer riding on large stately carriages under a rich canopy with a cornucopia of blessed donations, through religion, arts, sciences, patriotism and loyalty, culture and agriculture, bravery and strength, trade and industry, in pretty female figures. [...]

II. Harvesting Group (Images 5 - 10)

The second group of the pageant depicts diverse harvesting scenes on 20 carts, which are supposed to symbolise the wealth and diligence of Bavarian agriculture. The contemporaneous audience apparently appreciated in particular the second cart of the district court of Bruck (more or less corresponding to today’s commune of Fürstenfeldbruck): a cart full of grain, of which part of the lateral cover could be turned down to reveal two couples in festive dress who were threshing grain. Probably because of the popularity of this scene, Gustav Kraus included this cart in his view of Oktoberfest, Königszelt (Royal Tent) and pageant published already in 1835 (not reproduced here), even though that meant a random change of the processional order. The carts from the Oberland (Uplands) shown at the end of this section often show gunmen and rifle targets, but nonetheless belong in accordance with the programme to the harvesting group.

|5|
[Obere Reihe - Titel] Königliches Landgericht Dachau.

[Aus dem Beschreibungstext Blatt II]
[...] In dem 5to und 6to Bilde führen uns die Landgerichte Dachau und Bruck unter Vortragung des Ackerbau-Symbols, dann Untermengung von Reiterschaaren auf schön gezogenen Roßen, nebst einem stattlichen Allegorien reichen Festwagen (Markt Dachau), dann einer Bauernhochzeit; endlich auf vier schmuckvoll gezierten weiß und blauen Wägen die ippigsten Getreid-Erndte-Szenen vor Augen. [...]


EN

[Upper row - title] Royal district court Dachau.

[From the descriptive text on sheet II]
[...] In the 5th and 6th pictures, the district courts of Dachau and Bruck show us the agricultural symbol of the region, then a mixture of horsemen on beautifully drawn horses, a stately allegorical richly decorated carriage (Dachau market town), then a farmer's wedding; finally the most lavish grain harvest scenes on four ornately decorated white and blue carriages. [...]

|6|
[Obere Reihe - Titel] Königliches Landgericht Dachau.
[Untere Reihe - Titel] Königliches Landgericht Bruck.

[Aus dem Beschreibungstext Blatt II]
[...] Zauberisch öffnet sich eine der, vorn mit der Abbildung der historischen Abtey Fürstenfeld prangenden, schwer mit reichen Garben belastet scheinenden Wägen, und ist in einen Scheunenboden plötzlich verwandelt, auf welchem muntere Drescher nach dem Tackte weidlich die Flegel schwingen. [...]


EN

[Upper row - title] Royal district court Dachau.
[Lower row - title] Royal district court Bruck.

[From the descriptive text on sheet II]
[...] One of the carriages, which appears to be heavily laden with rich sheaves, opens magically with the depiction of the historic Fürstenfeld Abbey in front, and is suddenly transformed into a barn floor on which cheerful threshers are properly swinging their flails in time. [...]

|7|
[Obere Reihe - Titel] Königliches Landgericht Erding.

[Aus dem Beschreibungstext Blatt II]
Zweite Lieferung, von VII. bis XII.

[...] Während in drei Bildern durch das Landgerichte Erding auf schönen Wägen, unter Geleite von Reitern, den Hanf- und Flachsbau, [...]


EN

[Upper row - title] Royal district court Erding.

[From the descriptive text on sheet II]
Second lot, from VII. to XII.

[...] While in three pictures through the district court of Erding on beautiful carriages, escorted by horseman, the hemp and flax construction, [...]

|8|
[Obere Reihe - Titel] Königliches Landgericht Freysing.

[Aus dem Beschreibungstext Blatt II]
[...] Freising die Obstbaum-Kultur, [...]


EN

[Upper Row - title] Royal district court Freysing.

[From the descriptive text on sheet II]
[...] Freising the fruit tree culture, [...]

|9|
[Obere Reihe - Titel] Königliches Landgericht Ebersberg.
[Obere Reihe - Beschreibung] Grafing.
[Untere Reihe - Beschreibung] Grafing. Ebersberg. Ebersberg.
[Untere Reihe - Signatur] Gustav Kraus lith.

[Aus dem Beschreibungstext Blatt II]
[...] Ebersberg die Hopfenbauproduktion und Schafzucht (Grafing und Ebersberg), [...]


EN

[Upper row - title] Royal district court Ebersberg.
[Upper Row - Description] Grafing.
[Lower Row - Description] Grafing. Ebersberg. Ebersberg.
[Lower row - signature] Gustav Kraus lith.

[From the descriptive text on sheet II]
[...] Ebersberg the hop production and sheep breeding (Grafing and Ebersberg), [...]

|10|
[Obere Reihe - Titel] Königliches Landgericht Wolfratshausen.
[Obere Reihe - Beschreibung] Schaeftlarn.
[Untere Reihe - Beschreibung] Deining.
[Untere Reihe - Signatur] Gustav Kraus lith.

[Aus dem Beschreibungstext Blatt II]
[...] in den übrigen 3, durch das Landgericht Wolfratshausen die Heuerndte (Schäftlarn-Deining), [...]


EN

[Upper row - title] Royal district court Wolfratshausen.
[Upper row - description] Schaeftlarn.
[Lower Row - Description] Deining.
[Lower row - signature] Gustav Kraus lith.

[From the descriptive text on sheet II]
[...] in the remaining 3, through the district court Wolfratshausen the hay harvest (Schäftlarn-Deining), [...]

III. Group of Alpine Life (Images 11 - 16 above)

The transition from the harvesting group to the group of alpine life is fluid. As particularly memorable stand out, towards the beginning of the group, the gunmen from Tölz, Leonhardiwagen (St. Leonhard’s carts) from Miesbach (Kraus only reproduced two of the three coaches listed in the programme) and a cart send from Dießen am Ammersee with a school choir. The groups from Miesbach are followed by a small group of fishermen from the regional court of Laufen; they had originally not been envisaged for the pageant because of their distance from Munich. At the end of the group was a large delegation from Starnberg that carried with them, among other things, models of three royal pleasure boats from Würmsee or Starnberger See (Lake Würm or Starnberg).

|11|
[Obere Reihe - Titel] Königliches Landgericht Wolfratshausen.
[Obere Reihe - Beschreibung] Gemeinde Argeth.
[Untere Reihe - Beschreibung] Otterfing. Beuerberg [Baierbrunn]. Sauerlach.
[Untere Reihe - Signatur] Gustav Kraus lith.

[Aus dem Beschreibungstext Blatt II]
[...] Holzreichthum und wackere Scheibenschützen (Argeth, Otterfing, Beuerberg, Saurlach, Baierbrunn, [...]


EN

[Upper row - title] Royal district court Wolfratshausen.
[Upper row - description] Municipality of Argeth.
[Lower row - description] Otterfing. Beuerberg [Baierbrunn]. Sauerlach.
[Lower row - signature] Gustav Kraus lith.

[From the descriptive text on sheet II]
[...] wealth of wood and brave marksmen (Argeth, Otterfing, Beuerberg, Saurlach, Baierbrunn, [...]

|12|
[Obere Reihe - Titel] Königliches Landgericht Wolfratshausen.
[Obere Reihe - Beschreibung] Baierrhein. Eurasburg. Holzhausen.
[Untere Reihe - Beschreibung] Oberbiberg. Markt Wolfratshausen.
[Untere Reihe - Signatur] Gustav Kraus lith. 1836

[Aus dem Beschreibungstext Blatt II]
[...] Eurasburg, Holzhausen, Oberbiberg), Isarfloßfarths-Verkehr (Markt Wolfratshausen) darstellt in den verschiedenartigsten gelungenen Erfindungen und Gruppen, Zusammenstellung, [...]


EN

[Upper row - title] Royal district court Wolfratshausen.
[Upper row - description] Baierrhein. Eurasburg. Holzhausen.
[Lower row - description] Oberbiberg. Wolfratshausen.
[Lower row - signature] Gustav Kraus lith. 1836

[From the descriptive text on sheet II]
[...] Eurasburg, Holzhausen, Oberbiberg), Isar raft transportation (Wolfratshausen market town) in the most diverse successful inventions and groups, compilation, [...]

|13|
[Obere Reihe - Titel] Königliches Landgericht Tölz.
[Obere Reihe - Beschreibung] Compagnie Wackersberg. Jachenau. Compagie Gaissach.
[Untere Reihe - Beschreibung] Tölz. Schützen von Lenggries.

[Aus dem Beschreibungstext Blatt II]
[...] bringt uns die
Dritte Lieferung, von XIII, bis XVIII.
Vom Landgerichte Tölz die herrlichen, uniformen Gebirgsschützen-Compagnien mit fliegenden Fahnen und klingenden Spiele (Wackersberg, Gaisach, Lenggries), einen Wagen voll munterer eigenthümlicher Thalbewohner (Jachenau), eine ebenso wie oben der Floß, eingerichtete bewegliche Sennhütte mit Zugehör (Markt Tölz); [...]


EN

[Upper row - title] Royal district court Tölz.
[Upper row - Description] Companie Wackersberg. Jachenau. Companie Gaissach.
[Lower Row - description] Tölz. Marksmen of Lenggries.

[From the descriptive text on sheet II]
[...] brings us the
Thrid lot, from XIII. to XVIII.
From the district court of Tölz the marvellous, uniformed mountain troop companies with flying flags and sounding games (Wackersberg, Gaisach, Lenggries), a carriage full of typical cheerful valley inhabitants (Jachenau), a mobile mountain hut furnished like the raft above with accessories (Tölz market town);
[...]

|14|
[Obere Reihe - Titel] Königliches Landgericht Miesbach.
[Untere Reihe - Titel] Königliches Landgericht Miesbach. Königliches Landgericht Laufen. Königliches Landgericht Landsberg (Diessen).

[Aus dem Beschreibungstext Blatt II]
[...] vom Landgerichte Miesbach 2 sogenannte Sankt Leonhardsfahrten; dann ein grünender Wagen mit fröhlichen Kirchweih-Gästen; vom Landgerichte Laufen ein halb Dutzend stämmiger Männer in rother Schiffertracht, mit dem Modell Ihres Salzach-Fluß-Fahrzeuges, im Kleinen; vom Landgerichte Landsberg noch ein Schuljugend-Sänger-Chor mit dem Lehrer. [...]


EN

[Upper row - title] Royal district court Miesbach.
[Lower row - title] Royal district court Miesbach. Royal district court Laufen. Royal district court Landsberg (Diessen).

[From the descriptive text on sheet II]
[...] from the district court of Miesbach, 2 so-called Saint Leonhard processions; then a green carriage with cheerful parish fair guests; from the district court of Laufen half a dozen stocky men in red sailor's uniform, with the model of your Salzach river vessel, in small; from the district court of Landsberg yet another school youth choir with the teacher. [...]

|15|
[Obere Reihe - Titel] Königliches Landgericht Starnberg.

[Aus dem Beschreibungstext Blatt II]
[...] In den folgenden Bildern zeichnet sich das Landgericht Starnberg aus, mittels eines Trompeter-Corps zu Pferd, einer Abtheilung Bauern-Cavallerie, der bewimmpelten und bemannten Königlichen Lustschiffe: Löw, Hirsch, [...]


EN

[Upper row - title] Royal district court Starnberg.

[From the descriptive text on sheet II]
[...] In the following pictures, the district court of Starnberg is distinguished by a trumpeter corps on horseback, a division of the peasant cavalry, and the manned royal pleasure ships with pennants: lion, stag, [...]

IV. Group of Country Festivities (Images 16 below - 17)

Here, as well the transition between the groups of Ohlmüller’s programme are fluid. The equestrian groups at the end of sheet 16 in reality preceded this group. After three rather simple carts followed four carts from the patrimonial court at Seefeld that was going to exist until 1848 and that represented among other things a peasants’ wedding. In accordance with the special privileges held by the counts von Toerring-Seefeld within their patrimonial jurisdiction, this part of the group displayed the colours of the Toerring family of red, silver and green. The final card is of the group with Seagull fishers on Lake Seefeld (today: Pilsen), releasing directly in front of the Königszelt (Royal Tent) 25 white pigeons as is depicted on the lithograph.

|16|
[Obere Reihe - Titel] Königliches Landgericht Starnberg.
[Obere Reihe - Beschreibung] Berg.
[Untere Reihe - Beschreibung] Gauting. Tutzing.

[Aus dem Beschreibungstext Blatt II]

[...] Schwan, nebst dem Einbaum zum Fischfangen, auf wellenartig trappirten, 6, 4 und 2 Gespann. Ihnen folgen künstlich von Naturgewinden gezierte Wappen mit singenden Schulkindern, und festlich gekleideten Uferbewohner (Berg, Gauting, Tutzing). [...]


EN

[Upper row - title] Royal district court Starnberg.
[Upper row - description] Berg.
[Lower row - description] Gauting. Tutzing.

[From the descriptive text on sheet II]
[...] Swan, together with the dugout canoe for catching fish, trapped in waves, 6, 4 and 2 teams. They are followed by coats of arms artificially decorated with natural threads with singing schoolchildren and festively dressed lakeshore dwellers (Berg, Gauting, Tutzing). [...]

|17|
Patrimonialgericht Seefeld.

[Aus dem Beschreibungstext Blatt II]
[...] Ganz vorzüglich sprechen aber an auf dem 17to Bilde – der Bauernhochzeit- und Kammer-Wagen-Zug, dann das Seegel-Jagdschiff mit, in alter Tracht bemannten Möwen-Jägern, von Gutsherrschaftlichen geputzten Sechsspännern geführt. Die sinnige Allegorie der freygelassenen 25 weißen Tauben vor dem Königs-Zelte, auf die Jubel-Ehe des allerhöchsten Herrscher-Paares, (anstatt der Möwen) ist jedem Bayern unvergesslich (Patrimonialgerichte Seefeld), [...]


EN

Patrimonial court Seefeld.

[From the descriptive text on sheet II]
[...] The farmer's wedding and chamber carriage procession, then the sail hunting ship with manned seagull hunters in old costume, led by six-horse carriages preened by landowners speak exquisitely on the 17th picture though. The meaningful allegory of the 25 white doves released in front of the king's tent, for the jubilant marriage of the very highest couple of rulers (instead of the seagulls) is unforgettable to every Bavarian (patrimonial court of Seefeld), [...]

V. Group of Memories of Distant Times (Image 18)

The succeeding small group of actors in historicising costumes was sent by he patrimonial jurisdictions of Leutstetten (then in the possession of the non-aristocratic family Ertl), Seefeld (in the possession of the counts von Toerring-Seefeld) and Possenhofen (which had been acquired only the year before, in 1834, by Duke Max Joseph in Bavaria). In the Possenhofen cart, according to the description, sat masons working on the castle, which was then in the process of being rebuilt.

|18|
[Obere Reihe - Beschreibung] Patrimonialgericht Leutstetten. Patrimonialgericht Seefeld.
[Untere Reihe - Beschreibung] Patrimonialgericht Possenhofen. Patrimonialgericht Leutstetten.

[Aus dem Beschreibungstext Blatt II]
[...] Imposant und überraschend erscheint auf dem 18to Bilde die Erinnerung an ältere Vorzeit durch geharnischte und bewaffnete Ritter und Reisige, Blech-Instrumenten-Musik an der Spitze, einen künstlich aufgerichteten und würdigen Rüstungs-Prunkwagen mit dem angestammten Seefeldschen Wappenschmuk und Schilde im Gefolge; hierauf ein Wagen herrschaftlicher (Possenhofer) Schloß-Bauleute im Feyertags-Anzuge; endlich auf stattlichem Sechsspänner, unter Begleitung von bewaffneten und dem Burgherrn selbst zu Pferd mit seinem treuen Knappen, die edlen Burgbewohner oder ritterlichen Familien-Glieder (Patrimonialgericht Leutstetten). [...]


EN

[Upper row - description] Patrimonial court Leutstetten. Patrimonial court Seefeld.
[Lower row - description] Patrimonial court Possenhofen. Patrimonial court Leutstetten.

[From the descriptive text on sheet II]
[...] What is imposing and surprising in the 18th picture is the reminder of earlier times through armoured and armed knights and foot soldiers, brass band music in front, an artificially erected and dignified armoured coach with the ancestral Seefeld coat of arms and shields in the cortège; then a carriage of stately (Possenhofer) castle builders in their Sunday best; finally on a stately six-horse drawn carriage, accompanied by the armed lord of the castle himself on horseback with his faithful squire, the noble castle inhabitants or knightly family members (patrimonial court of Leutstetten). [...]

VI. Group of Urban Life and Final Group with 400 Horsemen (Images 19-22)

At the end of the pageant proper followed some groups that ought to represent urban life, led by a group from Landshut that belonged to the Isar district up to 1838 and followed by some communes that today belong to Munich. The commune of Bogenhausen thereby presented itself as an orchard, the Munich suburb of Au that had received urban rights between 1818 and 1879 instead with carts depicting the Mariahilfkirche, also designed by Ohlmüller, and with a large Salvator-beer cart by the Zacherl brewery, today’s Paulaner brewery. The communes of Haidhausen and Giesing sent carts that were intended to present Bavarian craftsmanship in general at the same time. The communes of Weilheim , Murnau and Freising brought up the rear of the groups with carts without any special symbolism.

Of the 400 equestrians of the final group, Gustav Kraus only depicted a very small fraction, among which were the cheering horsemen at the end.

|19|
[Obere Reihe - Titel] Magistrat Landshut.
[Untere Reihe - Titel] Königliches Landgericht Au.
[Untere Reihe - Beschreibung] Bogenhausen.
[Untere Reihe - Signatur] Gustav Kraus l.

[Aus dem Beschreibungstext Blatt II]
[...] Vierte Lieferung, von XIX. bis XXIV.
Außer der Stadt Landshut mit allegorisch geschmücktem Wagen, der Abbildung von Stadt und Schloß Trausnitz, - dem Ehren Wappen – 3 geharnischten Männern und versammelter Magistratur in alter Amts-Tracht, nimmt das Landgericht Au die folgenden 3 Bilder ein. Reiterei mit ihren Trompetern beginnt, nach ihr ein duftender Blumengarten, und von Früchten strozender Oragenbaum mit pflegendem Gärtner und Gärtnerin (Bogenhausen); [...]


EN

[Upper Row - Title] Magistrate Landshut.
[Lower Row - Title] Royal district court Au.
[Lower row - description] Bogenhausen.
[Lower row - signature] Gustav Kraus l.

[From the descriptive text on sheet II]
Fourth lot, from XIX. to XXIV.

Apart from the town of Landshut with its allegorically decorated carriage, the depiction of the town and Trausnitz Castle, the coat of arms, 3 armed men and the magistrate in old official costume, the district court of Au takes up the following 3 pictures. The cavalry and its trumpeters starts, followed by a fragrant flower garden, and an orange tree bursting with fruits accompanied by a nurturing male and female gardener (Bogenhausen); [...]

|20|
[Obere Reihe - Beschreibung] Vorstadt Au. Vorstadt Au.
[Untere Reihe - Titel] Königliches Landgericht Au.
[Untere Reihe - Beschreibung] Zacherl’sche Bierbräuerei in der Vorstadt Au.
[Untere Reihe - auf den Fahnen] | Noch 25 Jahre wie heute. |Salvator Bier. | Noch 1000 Jahre wie heute. |

[Aus dem Beschreibungstext Blatt II]
[...] schöne Allegorien vorherrschender Zünfte der Mauerer und Zimmerleute (Vorstadt Au), eine zahlreiche Gruppe aus dem jährlichen Volksleben zur Zeit des Salvatorbiers (Zacherlsche Bräuerei in der Au); [...]


EN

[Upper row - description] Suburban Au. Suburban Au.
[Lower row - title] Royal district court Au.
[Lower row - description] Zacherl'sche beer brewery in the suburb Au.
[Lower row - on the flags] | Still 25 years like today. |Salvator beer. | Still 1000 years like today. |

[From the descriptive text on sheet II]
[...] beautiful allegories of predominant masons and carpenters guilds (Vorstadt Au), a big group made up of the annual folk life at the time of Salvator beer (Zacherlsche brewery in the Au); [...]

|21|
[Obere Reihe - Titel] Gemeinde Heidhausen.
[Untere Reihe - Titel] Gemeinde Giesing.
[Untere Reihe - Signatur] Lith. Von Gustav Kraus

[Aus dem Beschreibungstext Blatt II]
[...] die häusliche Weiblichkeit mit ihren produktiven Handarbeiten, Männer mit verschiedenen Gewerbsschildern (Haidhausen und Giesing); [...]


EN

[Upper row - title] Municipality Heidhausen.
[Lower row - title] Municipality Giesing.
[Lower row - signature] Lith. By Gustav Kraus

[From the descriptive text on sheet II]
[...] the domestic femininity with its productive handicrafts, men with different trade signs (Haidhausen and Giesing); [...]

|22|
[Obere Reihe - Titel] Königliches Landgericht Weilheim.
[Obere Reihe - Beschreibung] Weilheim. Murnau.
[Untere Reihe - Beschreibung] Magistrat Freising. Königliches Landgericht München.
[Untere Reihe - Signatur] Lith. Von Gustav Kraus 1836

[Aus dem Beschreibungstext Blatt II]
[...] das Landgericht Weilheim schickt nach dem 22to Blatte Zierwagen mit Stadt- und Markts-Wappen, dann deren Bewohner (Weilheim und Murnau), endlich die Stadt Freising die Embleme aller dort befindlichen Handwerker. Den Schluß des so bald nicht wieder kehrenden ländlichen Festzuges bildet Reiterei aus dem Landgerichte München, und der letzte linke Flügelmann schreit mit schwingendem Hute aus voller Kehle ein ächt bayerisches:“Juche“! [...]


EN

[Upper row - title] Royal district court Weilheim.
[Upper row - description] Weilheim. Murnau.
[Lower row - description] Magistrate Freising. Royal district court Munich.
[Lower row - signature] Lith. By Gustav Kraus 1836

[From the descriptive text on sheet II]
[...] after the 22nd sheet, the district court of Weilheim sends ornamental carriages with city and market emblems, then their inhabitants (Weilheim and Murnau), finally the city of Freising sends the emblems of all the craftsmen located there. The end of the rural procession, which does not return so soon, is marked by cavalry from the district court of Munich, and the last wing man with swinging hat on the left screams an outrageous Bavarian "Juche"! [...]

VII. Preview of the Festwoche (Weeklong Festival; Images 23 and 24)

According to the festival programme after the pageant proper followed seven smaller groups from the city of Munich, which should give a taste of the festive events during the remainder of the Oktoberfest:
1) the gunmen’s buglers,
2) the prize flags of the festival shooting contest,
3) the prizes of the chariot race,
4) the horse-drawn carriages,
5) the prize flags of the wheel driving contest,
6) the journeymen wheelwrights and
7) the wrestlers.

Of these groups, Gustav Kraus depicted a selection on the two final sheets of the cycle; he started each sheet with the group of buglers. On the first sheet followed the groups 5 - 7 (upper row) and 4 (lower row), on the second sheet group 2 in conjunction with a selection of diverse groups of gunmen and several soldiers of the territorial army at the end.

The contests represented here, originated at least in part with earlier traditions. Shooting contests have been held at the Oktoberfest from 1816 to this day; the competitions between wrestlers of journeymen bakers and the wheel driving of the journeymen wheelwrights were instead executed for the first time during the Oktoberfest of 1835 on the initiative of the gymnastics teacher Josef Gruber. The journeymen bakers ascribed their competition (race over 3 x 125 paces and wrestling competition, during which the hands "may not leave the shoulders") to legendary events associated to the battle of Mühldorf in 1322. The contest of the journeymen wheelwrights, during which one had to drive a wooden wheel of a diameter of 117 cm and without an iron ring along a prescribed track (4 x 1000 paces), was attributed to a historical event of 20 July 1709. At the time, the master wheelwright Johann Guttmann from Lechhausen had produced a wooden wheel and driven it all the way to Munich in one day only.

The Roman-style chariot race was also conducted for the first time in 1835, probably due to King Ludwig I’s well-known enthusiasm for classical antiquity. Apparently, it was never repeated.

|23|
[Obere Reihe - Beschreibung] Zug der Bäcker- und Wagner-Gesellen.
[Untere Reihe - Beschreibung] Wagen-Renner-Zug.
[Untere Reihe - Titel] beym October-Fest in München | am 4. October 1835 | Verlag von J. C. Hochwind.

[Aus dem Beschreibungstext Blatt II]
[...] Nun schließt sich an, von der Haupt- und Residenz-Stadt München auf dem 23t und 24t Blatte unter Anführung eines altdeutsch costümirten Trompeten-Corps, der Zug von Bäcker- und Wagner-Gesellen zum Wettringkampfe und Wettlaufe, dann zum Radtreiben auf ausgestekter Bahn um die Preis-Fahnen, ersteres durch Kaiser Ludwigs Wappen-Verleihung wegen kriegerischer Auszeichnung in der Schlacht bei Ampfing vor 519 Jahren, letzteres durch Meisters Gutlmann von Lechhausen Kunstfertigkeit vor 126 Jahren versinnlicht; ferner von zweispänigen und zweirädrigen Wagenrennern, aus den römischen Spielen entnommen; [...]


EN

[Upper row - description] procession of baker and wainwright journeymen.
[Lower row - description] two-wheeler chariot racers procession.
[Lower row - title] at the October festival in Munich | on October 4, 1835 | published by J. C. Hochwind.

[From the descriptive text on sheet II]
[...] This is now followed by the capital and residence city of Munich on the 23rd and 24th sheet under the leadership of an old German costumed trumpet corps, the procession of baker and wainwright journeymen to the competition wrestling and races, then to the wheel pushing on the track for the prize flags, the first symbolised by Emperor Ludwig's coat of arms award due to military distinction in the Battle of Ampfing 519 years ago, the latter by master Gutlmann von Lechhausen's artistry 126 years ago; further by two-horse drawn, two-wheeler chariot racers, taken from the Roman games; [...]

|24|
[Untere Reihe - Titel] Festzug | der Feuergewehr- und Stahlarmbrust-Schützen | den 5. October 1835 | Verlag von J. C. Hochwind.

[Aus dem Beschreibungstext Blatt II]
[...] endlich von Feuergewehr- und Stahlarmbrust-Schützen mit den Insignien, Zielern und Gewinnsen; welche eine Abtheilung Landwehr-Schützen geleitet.
[...]


EN

[Lower row - title] Pageant | fire rifle and steel crossbow marksmen, October 5, 1835, Verlag von J. C. Hochwind.

[From the descriptive text on sheet II]
[...] finally by fire rifle and steel crossbow marksmen with the insignia, targets and winnings; which led a division of territorial Army marksmen.

The Pageant of 1842

Gustav Wilhelm Kraus
Procession of 35 bridal couples to the wedding celebration of His Royal Highness, the Crown Prince Maximilian von Bayern and Her Royal Highness, the Crown Princess Marie von Bayern while passing the Königszelt (Royal Tent) at the Oktoberfest in Munich on 16 October 1842.
3 sheets coloured lithographs [with program]
Publishing house G. Kraus
Format each approx. 38 x 55 cm
Munich City Museum, Inv. No. G-P 1583

In a certain way, the first half of October was almost predestined for royal events during the nineteenth century. Not only did the Oktoberfest – long established - provide a larger audience in the city of Munich ; the clustering of name days and wedding anniversaries was equally convincing. On 12 October is the day of St. Maximilian, the name day of the first king, Maximilian I Joseph, and of Crown Prince Maximilian. The wedding of Ludwig I and Therese had also taken place on this day. Finally, on 15 October was the feast day of St. Theresa and, therefore, the name day of the queen herself. It was thus almost unavoidable that a day in October would be set aside for the wedding of Crown Prince Maximilian , the future King Maximilian II (1811-1864), to the Prussian Princess Marie Friedrike (1825-1889) – in particular the date of his parents’ wedding anniversary offered itself. For this reason alone, the 1842 Oktoberfest turned into a far more dynastic celebration than had been the case in normal years.

The wedding itself took place on 12 October in the Allerheiligen-Hofkirche (All-Saints Court Church) of the Munich Residenz (Residence). Apart from other courtly activities within the context of the festivities, the population of Munich was remembered – as had already happened back in 1810 during the wedding of Ludwig I and Therese – when the city was included in financing the event. For example, the magistrate of Munich paid for the distribution of food to the inmates of hospitals, of poorhouses and of the Nockher city hospital on the Anger (village green). The Israelite community financed a meal for all military and civil prisoners. During the Oktoberfest itself the shooting contests of that year were dedicated to the newly wed crown princely couple; the prizes were, therefore, more valuable. To make the idea of the ruling house acting as parents of the nation even more obvious, a special plan was conceived. By means of a group wedding of bridal couples from all parts of Bavaria and (at least in theory) from all social strata the connection between dynasty and country was supposed to be affirmed and celebrated.

Introduction

Even from a purely logistic point of view, the situation in 1842 presented itself very differently in comparison to the pageant seven years earlier in 1835. King Ludwig I’s vested interest in turning the Oktoberfest on the occasion of the matrimony of his son and successor – the first crown princely wedding since his own 32 years ago – into a great national festival, ensured the timely planning and a comparatively generous financial budgeting. The network of railroads in Bavaria was already developing: in 1839, not far from Theresienwiese (Theresia Meadow), the first train station of the city, predecessor of today’s main train station, was built. In 1840, the railway line Munich – Augsburg was inaugurated.

Back in March 1842, the presidium of the royal government of Oberbayern (Upper Bavaria) informed all communes of the realm of the king’s wish. From all governmental districts, respectively, several bridal couples "of blameless morals and indubitable dignity" ought to be selected to participate in the collective wedding in Munich. The cost of accommodation and board in Munich ought to be met by the city, the couples’ bridal outfits were to be financed by the district courts, by their families’ own means as well as by donations made by foundations and sponsors. The only other condition, apart from an impeccable reputation, was that the couples had "[...] to appear in the proper, particularly traditional and distinguishing attire [...]" and that their entourage ought not to be too numerous. The authenticity of the costumes was less important; in particular, the urban couples, therefore, based their costumes on models of traditional attire that no longer existed.

The response to this directive from Munich seems not to have corresponded in every point to the expectations. Even though sufficient sponsors could be found among the aristocratic squires, the majority of the bridal couples was middle class. Apparently, prosperous craftsmen and wealthy peasants particularly liked the increased prestige to be gained by such a wedding. In addition, there could be hardly any question of a regionally balanced distribution of the couples: in contrast to the four couples sent by most districts, Upper Bavaria provided six bridal couples and the Rhenish Palatinate only two. The larger cities such as Speyer or Kaiserslautern did not directly participate.

Apart from newspaper reports, three sources in particular may be consulted for the procession of the bridal couples. In addition to the official programme of the city of Munich, in the book by F. Rudolph on the 1842 Oktoberfest may be found detailed descriptions of the couples and of their costumes (pp. 49-?) Finally already shortly after the procession appeared a series of three lithographs, created by Gustav Kraus (1804-1852), which illustrated the bridal procession with great precision and considerable empathy. The programme published by the magistrate of the city of Munich is included here with its full text to illustrate better the three lithographs reproduced here.

Even though the programme describes the procession of bridal couples from today’s Alte Rathaus (Old Townhall) on Munich’s Schrannenplatz (today: Marienplatz) to the Catholic church of St. Michael or to the Lutheran church of St. Matthew, the lithographs by Kraus depicted the parade of the (now) married couples past the Königszelt (Royal Tent). Nonetheless, the descriptions in the festival programme coincide with the depictions on the lithographs. The only difference consists in the depiction of bride and bridegroom walking side by side in the lithographs – since they were already married at this point – whereas they had walked in two separate processions on their way to church.

To save as much space as possible, Kraus wound the bridal procession snakelike in four rows, one above the other – in a form of representation that had by then already proven its worth for this kind of illustrations over the centuries.

|Vorderer Spiegel|
Geschenk Seiner Majestät des Königs Ludwig I. aus Höchstdessen Privatbibliothek.

|1|


Programm
über die
a
m 16. Oktober 1842 stattfindende
Trauung von fünfunddreißig Brautpaaren
aus den
acht Regierungs-Bezirken des Königreichs Bayern,
und
deren Festzug
vor
Ihren Königlichen Majestäten
und
Allerhöchsten und Höchsten Herrschaften
auf der Theresienwiese.


----
Wie vor 32 Jahren das frohe Ereignis der Vermählung Seiner Majestät unseres allergnädigsten Königs Ludwig, an welches die erste Entstehung des Central-Landwirthschafts-Festes zu München sich anknüpfte, demselben zu jener Zeit die Weihe eines Landesfestes im höheren Wortsinne verlieh, so schließt auch in dem gegenwärtigen Jahre wieder die Feyer dieses Festes an die Vermählung Ihrer Königlichen Hoheiten des Kronprinzen Maximilian und der Kronprinzessin Maria sich an, und wird dadurch abermals zu einem allgemeinen hohen Freudenfeste.

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Es konnte die allgemeine Theilnahme des Landes hieran wohl nicht angemessener und besser bethätiget werden, als daß zum Gedächtnisse dieser höchsten Vermählung aus jedem der acht Regierungs-Bezirke mehrere Brautpaare von unzweifelhafter Würdigkeit zum Theile aus öffentlichen Fonds und durch gemeinsames Zusammenwirken ausgestattet wurden.

Diese Brautpaare, 35 an der Zahl, feyern nunmehr am 16. des Monats in der königlichen Haupt- und Residenzstadt ihre Hochzeit, und werden im festlichen Hochzeitzuge Ihren Königlichen Majestäten auf der Thereisenwiese ihre allerehrfurchtsvollste Huldigung darbringen.
Die Feier wird in folgender Weise statt finden:

§. 1.

Am Oktoberfest-Sonntage den 16. des Monats Morgens 8 Uhr versammeln sich sämmtliche Brautpaare mit ihren Eltern oder deren Stellvertreter mit den Trauungszeugen, und der sonst an jedem Orte üblichen Begleitung eines Brautzuges im großen Rathhaussaale.
Die Gebirgsschützen aus Lengries, Wackersberg und Reichenhall, sowie die Bergknappen aus Amberg, welche zu dieser Feyer sich gleichfalls dahier eingefunden haben, stellen sich gleichzeitig vor dem Rathhause auf, und ordnen sich mit den aus dem Saale kommenden Brautzügen daselbst zum Kirchengange.


EN

|Endpaper|

Gifted by his Majesty King Ludwig I from his Highness' private library

|1|

Programme about the wedding ceremony of thirty-five bridal couples from the Kingdom of Bavaria's eight government districts, taking place on 16 October 1842, and their procession before Their Royal Majesties and high and mighty rulers on the Theresienwiese.

----
Just as 32 years ago the happy event of His Majesty our most gracious King Ludwig's marriage, which the origin of the Central Agricultural Festival of Munich was tied to, lent it the consecration of a national festival in the higher sense of the word at that time, the celebration of this festival was tied to the wedding of Their Royal Highnesses Crown Prince Maximilian and Crown Princess Mary in this year, making it a generally great celebration as a result.

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The general participation of the state in this could probably not be done more appropriately and better in memory of this highest marriage than several bridal couples of unquestionable integrity from each of the eight government districts being endowed partly from public funds and by working together.
These bridal couples, 35 in number, now celebrate their wedding on the 16th of the month in the royal capital and residential city, and will offer their most reverent homage to their royal majesties on the Thereisenwiese in the festive wedding procession.
The celebration is held in the following manner:

§. 1.
On Oktoberfest Sunday, the 16th of the month at 8 o'clock in the morning, all the bridal couples gather with their parents or their representatives with the witnesses to the marriage, and the customary bridal procession party in the large town hall rooms.
The mountain troops from Lengries, Wackersberg and Reichenhall, as well as the miners from Amberg, who have also gathered here for this celebration, line up at the same time in front of the town hall, and arrange themselves there with the bridal processions coming from the hall to church.

Sheet I. Bridal Couples 1-5

The first sheet shows the beginning of the procession, led by two groups of mountain troops and a music group. The couples from Upper Bavaria had the advantage of being able to bring their wedding carriages and to keep the accompanying groups much larger at their own expense. For example, the bridal couple from Ismaning went through the city with five carriages, their own music group and almost 30 participants.

[Fortsetzung Programmtext]

§. 2.Der Trauungszug setzt sich um 9 Uhr in Bewegung, und zwar in folgender Ordnung:

I. Die Brautzüge aus Oberbayern.

Die Gebirgsschützen-Compagnie von Lengries, königlichen Landgerichts Tölz, mit ihren Spielleuten.
Die Gebirgsschützen-Compagnie von Wackersberg, desselben königlichen Landgerichts, gleichfalls mit ihren Spielleuten.
Hierauf folgen die Brautzüge:

1) Das Brautpaar der Stadt München: die Brautleute Johann Schmidt, angehender Kistlermeister, und Amalie Ortlieb, katholisch, begleitet von der verwittibten Mutter der Braut, dem Vormunde derselben, dem Brautführer, 2 Zeugen, 2 Brautjungfern und dem Hochzeitlader.

2) Das Brautpaar aus dem königlichen Landgerichte Starnberg: Georg Rehm, angehender Schuhmacher, und Maria Bauer katholisch, mit 2 Kranzljungfern, dem Ehren- |3| vater, der Ehrenmutter, dem Vater und der Mutter des Bräutigams, dem Vater der Braut, 2 Basen der Braut, einem Vetter des Bräutigams und einen solchen der Braut, einer Schwester der Braut und 7 Musikanten.
3) Das Brautpaar aus dem königlichen Landgerichte Schrobenhausen: Martin Spieß, Gütler und Taglöhner von Eiselsried, und Theresia Mühlpointner, Häuslerstochter. Diese begleiten: der Brautführer, zwei Kranzeljungfern, zwei Ehrenväter, katholisch, zwei Zeugen, vier sonstige nächste Verwandte, der Hochzeitlader.
4) Das Brautpaar aus dem königlichen Landgerichte München: Jakob Sanftl, Kleingütler und Zimmermann zu Ismaning, und Barbara Kranz, Schmiedstochter, katholisch.
Diesen folgen der Hochzeitlader zu Pferd, ein Musikantenwagen mit 10 Spielleuten, ein vierspänniger Brautwagen mit der Braut, der Ehrenmutter, zwei Kranzljungfern, der Eltern der Brautleute, ein zweispänniger Wagen mit 6 Jungfern als Hochzeitsgäste, ein zweispänniger Wagen mit 6 Jünglingen als Hochzeitsgäste und der Hochzeiter, der nach der Trauung im vierspännigen Brautwagen erscheint.
5) Das Brautpaar aus dem königlichen Landgerichte Rosenheim: Johann Rebacher [korrekter Name: Seebacher], Bauer zu Vorderschweinsteig in der Gemeinde Niederaudorf, und Maria Kloo, Bauerstochter, katholisch.
Diese begleiten zwei vorangehende Jünglinge, zwei vorangehende Jungfrauen, der Brautführer, die Ehrenmutter, zwei Ehrenväter und Zeugen, eine Stellvertreterin der verstorbenen Mutter des Hochzeiters, die Mutter der Braut, der Hochzeitlader.


EN

[Continuation of programme text]

§. 2.The marriage procession starts moving at 9 o'clock, in the following order:

I. The bridal processions from Upper Bavaria.

The mountain troop company of Lengries, royal district court of Tölz, with their minstrels.
The mountain troop company of Wackersberg, the same royal district court, also with their minstrels.
The bridal processions follow:

1) The bridal couple of the city of Munich: the bridal couple Johann Schmidt, prospective ornamental carpenter, and Amalie Ortlieb, Catholic, accompanied by the widowed mother of the bride, her guardian, the usher, 2 witnesses, 2 bridesmaids and the wedding host.
2) The bridal couple from the royal district court of Starnberg: Georg Rehm, prospective shoemaker, and Maria Bauer, Catholic, with 2 bridesmaids, the best man
|3|, the maid of honour, the bridegroom's father and mother, the father of the bride, 2 female cousins of the bride, a male cousin of the bridegroom and one of the bride, a sister of the bride and 7 musicians.
3) The bridal couple from the royal district court of Schrobenhausen: Martin Spieß, small farm owner and day labourer from Eiselsried, and Theresia Mühlpointner, cottager's daughter. They are accompanied by: the best man, two bridesmaids, two ushers, Catholic, two witnesses, four other close relatives, the wedding host.
4) The bridal couple from the royal district court of Munich: Jakob Sanftl, small farm owner and carpenter in Ismaning, and Barbara Kranz, blacksmith's daughter, Catholic.These are followed by the wedding host on horseback, a musician's carriage with 10 minstrels, a four-horse drawn bridal carriage with the bride, the maid of honour, two bridesmaids, the bride and bridegroom's parents, a two-horse drawn carriage with 6 maidens as wedding guests, a two-horse drawn carriage with 6 young men as wedding guests and the bridegroom, who appears after the wedding in the four-horse drawn carriage.
5) The bridal couple from the royal district court of Rosenheim: Johann Rebacher [correct name: Seebacher], farmer in Vorderschweinsteig in the municipality of Niederaudorf, and Maria Kloo, farmer's daughter, Catholic.They are accompanied by two preceding young men, two preceding maidens, the usher, the maid of honour, two best men and witnesses, a representative for the bridegroom's deceased mother, the mother of the bride, the wedding host.

Sheet II. Bridal Couples 6-19

On the second sheet, after the couples from Upper Bavaria follow in close sequence the couples from Lower Bavaria, the Rhenish Palatinate, the Upper Palatinate and from Upper Franconia. A special mention deserves the picturesque deputation from Kronach at the end of the sheet, in which case the city obviously wished to exploit the event to gain as much attention as possible with the help of historical costumes.

[Fortsetzung Programmtext]

6) Das Brautpaar aus dem königlichen Landgerichte Reichenhall: Johann Aschauer, Oedgastnerbauer in der Gemeinde Stoißberg und Maria Eichner, Bauerstochter, katholisch.
Die Ordnung dieses Brautzuges ist folgende: fünf Musikanten, der Bräutigam mit dem Hochzeitlader, der Brautführer mit der Braut, der Ehrenvater mit der Ehrenmutter, eine Kranzljungfer, fünf Prangerinnen.

Die Brautzüge von Oberbayern schließen: Die Gebirgsschützen aus dem königlichen Landgerichte Reichenhall.


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II. Die Brautzüge aus Niederbayern.


Ein Fahnenträger mit dem Wappen der Stadt Landshut.
Die Musiker aus Kötzing.

7) Das Brautpaar der Stadt Passau: Ignatz Seidl, angehender Bürger von Passau und Katharina Rackl, Lohnkutscherstochter, katholisch. Diese begleiten der Brautführer, die beiden Beiständer, zwei Kranzljungfern, die Brautmutter.
8) Das Brautpaar aus dem königlichen Landgerichte Landshut: Mathias Eisenried, Bauer von Pestendorf und Therese Fleischmann, Bauerstochter, katholisch. Mit diesen gehen drei Kranzljungfern, der Brautführer.
9) Das Brautpaar aus dem königlichen Landgerichte Straubing: Georg Schütz, Bauerssohn von Atting und Helena Wild, Müllerstochter, katholisch. Ihre Begleitung sind der Brautführer, die Kranzljungfrau, die Brautmutter, der Vater der Braut, der Hochzeitlader.
10) Das Brautpaar aus dem königlichen Landgerichte Griesbach: Jakob Steindl, angehender Bauer zu Oberschwätzenbach und Therese Grammel, Bauerstochter, katholisch. Die Brautmutter, die Kranzljungfer, der Vater der Braut, der Heirathsgezeug der Braut, und der Hochzeitlader folgen denselben.

III. Die Brautzüge aus der Pfalz.

Ein Fahnenträger mit dem Wappen der Grafschaft Veldenz.
Musiker.
Ein Fahnenträger mit dem Wappen der Stadt Speyer.

11) Das Brautpaar aus Pirmasenz: Peter Lorenz, Schuhmacher in Pirmasenz und Anna Maria Bachmann, Maurerstochter, katholisch. Mit ihnen gehen vier männliche Zeugen, die Eltern der Brautleute.
12) Das Brautpaar aus dem königlichen Land-Commißariat Kirchheim-Bollanden: Peter Schmid, Leinweber in Göllheim und Katharina Joos, Schreinerstochter, protestantisch. Ihre Begleitung bestehet aus den Eltern und deren stellvertretenden vier Verwandten und vier Zeugen.

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IV. Die Brautzüge aus Oberpfalz und Regensburg.


Ein Fahnenträger mit dem oberpfälzischen Wappen.
Der Zug der Bergknappen aus Amberg mit Musik.
Ein Fahnenträger mit dem Wappen der Stadt Regensburg.
13) Das Brautpaar der Stadt Regensburg: Wilhelm Heinrich Erdmann Kaufmann, angehender Kufnermeister in Regensburg und Anna Katharina Hagen, Metzgerstochter, protestantisch. Mit denselben ist eine Kranzljungfer als Begleiterin der Braut, der Brautführer, der Ehrenvater, die Ehrenmutter, ein männlicher und ein weiblicher Zeuge.
14) Das Brautpaar des königlichen Landgerichts Hemau: Joseph Weiß, Häusler von Pölndorf, und Barbara Mirbeck, von Aichkirchen, katholisch. Diese werden begleitet von zwei Kranzljungfern, dem Brautführer, und den Vätern der Brautleute als Zeugen.
15) Das Brautpaar des königlichen Landgerichts Kemnath: Mathäus Weyh, Metzgerssohn aus Kemnath, und Anna Murr, Metzgerstochter, katholisch. Denselben folgen zwei Kranzlfungfern, der Brautführer und die Aeltern der Brautleute als Zeugen.
16) Das Brautpaar aus dem königlichen Landgericht Neunburg vorm Wald: Joseph Probst, angehender Schuhmachermeister in Neunburg vorm Wald, und Katharina Brunner, Schuhmacherstochter, katholisch, mit zwei Kranzljungfern, dem Brautführer und zwei Zeugen.

V. Die Brautzüge aus Oberfranken.

Ein Fahnenträger mit dem Wappen des Herzogthums Franken.
Musik.
Ein Fahnenträger mit dem Wappen der Stadt Bayreuth.

17) Das Brautpaar der Stadt Bayreuth: Christian Friedrich Schmidt, Bürger und Tuchmachermeister in Bayreuth, und Sabine Magdalena Wanner, Glasermeisterstochter, protestantisch. Denselben folgen ein Brautbegleiter und eine Brautbegleiterin.
18) Das Brautpaar der Stadt Bamberg: Georg Humann, Ludwigs-Kanal-Schiffmeister in Bamberg und Barbara Strommer, Zimmergesellenstochter, katholisch. Dieselben begleiten zwei Brautjungfern, zwei Brautführer, zwei Zeugen, ein Stellvertreter des alten Vaters des Bräutigams und der Vater der Braut.

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19) Das Brautpaar des königlichen Landgerichts Kronach: Georg Hellmuth, Messerschmiedmeister in Kronach, und Margaretha Grieser, Maurerstochter, katholisch. Dieselben werden begleitet von einem Brautführer, zwei Brautjungfern, zwei Zeugen und zwei magistratischen Deputirten in altspanischer Tracht mit goldenen Gnadenketten, wie sie dem Stadtrathe von Kronach zur Belohnung der von der Bürgerschaft im dreißigjährigen Kriege bewiesenen Treue und Tapferkeit von dem Fürstbischofe Melchior Otto von Bamberg und Kaiser Karl VI. [Sic!] im Jahre 1651 verliehen, und zu tragen bewilliget worden sind.


EN

[Continuation of programme text]

6) The bridal couple from the royal district court of Reichenhall: Johann Aschauer, Oedgastner farmer in the municipality of Stoißberg and Maria Eichner, farmer's daughter, Catholic.
The order of this bridal procession is as follows: five musicians, the bridegroom with the wedding host, the usher with the bride, the best man with the maid of honour, a bridesmaid, five young bride attendants.

The bridal processions of Upper Bavaria come to an end: the mountain troops from the royal district court of Reichenhall.

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II. The bridal processions from Lower Bavaria.

A flag bearer with the coat of arms of the city of Landshut.
The musicians from Kötzing.

7) The bridal couple from the city of Passau: Ignatz Seidl, aspiring burgher of Passau and Katharina Rackl, coachman's daughter, Catholic. They are accompanied by the usher, two advisers, two bridesmaids, the bride's mother.
8) The bridal couple from the royal district court of Landshut: Mathias Eisenried, farmer from Pestendorf and Therese Fleischmann, farmer's daughter, Catholic. Three bridesmaids and the usher walk with them.
9) The bridal couple from the royal district court of Straubing: Georg Schütz, farmer's son from Atting and Helena Wild, miller's daughter, Catholic. They are accompanied by the usher, the bridesmaid, the bride's mother, the bride's father, the wedding host.
10) The bridal couple from the royal district court of Griesbach: Jakob Steindl, aspiring farmer in Oberschwätzenbach and Therese Grammel, farmer's daughter, Catholic. The bride's mother, the bridesmaid, the bride's father, the bride's wedding paraphernalia, and the wedding host follow.

III. The bridal processions from the Palatinate.


A flag bearer with the coat of arms of the county of Veldenz.
Musicians.
A flag bearer with the coat of arms of the city of Speyer.

11) The bridal couple from Pirmasenz: Peter Lorenz, shoemaker in Pirmasenz and Anna Maria Bachmann, bricklayer's daughter, Catholic. Four male witnesses, the bridal couple's parents walk with them.
12) The bridal couple from the royal rural commissariat of Kirchheim-Bollanden: Peter Schmid, linen weaver in Göllheim and Katharina Joos, carpenter's daughter, Protestant. Their company consists of the parents and their four representative relatives and four witnesses.

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IV. The bridal processions from Upper Palatinate and Regensburg.

A flag bearer with the coat of arms of the Upper Palatinate.
The procession of miners from Amberg with music.
A flag bearer with the coat of arms of the city of Regensburg.

13) The bridal couple from the city of Regensburg: Wilhelm Heinrich Erdmann Kaufmann, prospective cooper master in Regensburg and Anna Katharina Hagen, butcher's daughter, Protestant. With them is a bridesmaid as the bride's companion, the usher, the best man, the maid of honour, a male and a female witness.
14) The bridal couple from the royal district court of Hemau: Joseph Weiß, cottager from Pölndorf, and Barbara Mirbeck, of Aichkirchen, Catholic. They are accompanied by two bridesmaids, the usher, and the bridal couple's fathers as witnesses.
15) The bridal couple from the royal district court of Kemnath: Mathäus Weyh, butcher's son from Kemnath, and Anna Murr, butcher's daughter, Catholic. They are followed by two bridesmaids, the usher and the bridal couple's parents as witnesses.
16) The bridal couple from the royal district court of Neunburg vorm Wald: Joseph Probst, prospective master shoemaker in Neunburg vorm Wald, and Katharina Brunner, shoemaker's daughter, Catholic, with two bridesmaids, the usher and two witnesses.

V. The bridal processions from Upper Franconia.


A flag bearer with the coat of arms of the duchy of Franconia.
Music.
A flag bearer with the coat of arms of the city of Bayreuth.

17) The bridal couple from the city of Bayreuth: Christian Friedrich Schmidt, citizen and master clothier in Bayreuth, and Sabine Magdalena Wanner, master glazier's daughter, Protestant. They are followed by a male and female wedding escort.
18) The bridal couple from the city of Bamberg: Georg Humann, Ludwig Canal ship owner in Bamberg and Barbara Strommer, carpenter journeyman's daughter, Catholic. They are accompanied by two bridesmaids, two ushers, two witnesses, a representative for the bridegroom's old father and the bride's father.

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19) The bridal couple from the royal district court of Kronach: Georg Hellmuth, master cutler in Kronach, and Margaretha Grieser, bricklayer's daughter, Catholic. They are accompanied by an usher, two bridesmaids, two witnesses and two magistrate deputies in old Spanish costume with golden chains of mercy, as awarded to the city council of Kronach as a reward for the loyalty and bravery demonstrated by the citizens during the Thirty Years' War by the prince-bishop Melchior Otto of Bamberg and Emperor Charles VI [Sic!] in 1651, and which had been granted permission to be worn.

Sheet III. Bridal Couples 20-35

The third sheet ends the sequence of the bridal couples from Upper Franconia and completes the parade with the couples from the administrative districts of Middle Franconia, Lower Franconia, and Swabia. Among the relatively small bridal groups, the large groups from Mistelbach in the district court of Bayreuth with 16 participants at the beginning of the sheet as well as the group from the Lower Franconian Werneck stand out. Both cases concern wealthy peasant families that, according to tradition, paid themselves for the journeys and outfits of bride and groom.

[Fortsetzung Programmtext]

20) Das Brautpaar des königlichen Landgerichts Bayreuth: Johann Nützel, Bauer von Mistelbach, und Kunigunde Nützel, Bauerstochter, protestantisch. Dieselben begleiten zwei Brautjungfern, zwei Brautweiber, zwei Brautführer, ein Stellvertreter des Vaters des Bräutigams, der Vater der Braut, der Taufpathe der Braut, zwei Kinder von 10 und 12 Jahren, und fünf Musikanten, (Hummelmusikanten.)
21) Das Brautpaar des königlichen Landgerichts Rehau: Johann Zech, Zimmergeselle in Rehau, und Margaretha Sammet, Oekonomiebürgerstochter, protestantisch, nebst einem Brautführer und einer Brautjungfer.
22) Das Brautpaar des königlichen Landgerichts Wunsiedl: Johann Nikolaus Küspert, Landwirth von Reichenbach, und Margaretha Barbara Nürnberger, Landwirthstochter, protestantisch. Dieselben begleiten ein Brautführer, eine Brautjungfer, der Vater des Bräutigams, der Vater der Braut, die Mutter der Braut, und der Taufpathe der Braut.

VI. Die Brautzüge aus Mittelfranken.


Ein Fahnenträger mit dem Wappen der Stadt Ansbach.

23) Das Brautpaar des königlichen Landgerichts Eichstätt: Johann Heugl, von Burgheim, und Dorothea Birner, von eben daher, katholisch. Denselben folgen eine Brautjungfer, ein Brautführer und zwei Ehrenväter.
24) Das Brautpaar des königlichen Landgerichts Nürnberg: Andreas Wolfgang Volland, Pächter von Großreuth, und Anna Kunigunde Lauble, protestantisch. Dieselben begleiten ein Brautführer, eine Brautjungfer, ein Ehrenvater, eine Ehrenmutter.
25) Das Brautpaar des königlichen Landgerichts Markt-Bibart: Christop Deinlein und Katharina Wolf, beide von Sugenheim, protestantisch. Dieselben werden begleitet von einem Brautführer, einer Brautjungfer, und zwei Ehrenvätern.

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26) Das Brautpaar des Herrschaftsgerichts Ellingen. Johann Christoph Hartmann, von Suffersheim, und Chrstine Loy, von Oberhöchstadt, protestantisch. Dieselben begleiten ein Ehrenvater, eine Brautjungfer, eine Ehrenmutter, ein Brautführer.

VII. Die Brautzüge aus Unterfranken und Aschaffenburg.


Ein Fahnenträger mit dem Wappen der Stadt Würzburg.

27) Das Brautpaar der Stadt Würzburg. Adam Geist, Güterschaffner von Würzburg, und Sabine Wirth, katholisch, nebst zwei Zugmännern und sechs Begleitern.
28) Das Brautpaar des königlichen Landgerichts Bischofsheim an der Rhön: Jakob Horbett, Leinwandweber in Wegfurt, und Eva Motter, katholisch. Dieselben begleiten zwei Zeugen, ein Brautführer, eine Brautführerin, und zwei Begleiter.
29) Das Brautpaar des königlichen Landgerichts Werneck: Johann Pfister, Bauer von Schnackenwörth, und Margaretha Treutlein, Bauerstochter, katholisch. Denselben folgen: die Eltern der Brautleute, zwei Zugmänner, zwei Brautführer, (Schmalbursche) zwei Brautjungfern, (Schmaljungfern) und zwei nächste Verwandte.
30) Das Brautpaar des königlichen Landgerichts Euerdorf: Michael Schubert, Bauer von Ebenhausen, und Margaretha Gößmann, katholisch. Dieselben begleiten zwei Zeugen, zwei Brautführerinnen, und drei Begleiter.

VIII. Die Brautzüge aus Schwaben und Neuburg.


Ein Fahnenträger mit dem Wappen der Grafschaft Burgau.
Musik.’
Ein Fahnenträger mit dem Wappen der Stadt Augsburg.

31) Das eine Brautpaar der Stadt Augsburg sind: Johann Michael Ragner, Huker von Augsburg, und Theresia Viktoria Trichter, Metzgerstochter, katholisch. Mit denselben sind zwei Ehrenfrauen, zwei Zeugen, zwei Brautjungfern.
32) Das zweite Brautpaar der Stadt Augsburg. Friedrich Thenn, Metzgermeister in Augsburg, und Rosine Weiß, Schäfflermeisterstochter, protestantisch. Dieselben begleiten zwei Ehrenfrauen, zwei Zeugen und zwei Brautjungfern.

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Sechs Fahnenträger mit den Wappen der Städte Kaufbeuren, Kempten, Lindau, Memmingen, Neuburg und Nördlingen.
33) Das Brautpaar aus dem königlichen Landgerichte Kempten: Konrad Prestel, Schuhmachermeister in heilig Kreuz, und Maria Merz, Tagwerkerstochter, katholisch. Denselben folgen ein Ehrengeselle, ein Ehrenvater, zwei Zeugen, ein Brautführer, eine Ehrenjungfer und eine Ehrenmutter.
34) Das Brautpaar aus dem königlichen Landgerichte Monheim: Mathias Zollenhofer, Lithographie-Steinbrecher in Solnhofen und Barbara Rubmann, Steinbrechers- und Schneiderstochter, protestantisch. Dieselben begleiten zwei Zeugen, zwei Brautführer und zwei Brautjungfern.
35) Das Brautpaar aus dem königlichen Landgerichte Wertingen: Jakob Saule, Söldgütler in Sontheim, und Kreszentia Gerstmayer, Hirtentochter, katholisch, nebst zwei Brautführern, zwei Brautjungfern und zwei Zeugen.


EN

[Continuation of programme text]

20) The bridal couple from the royal district court of Bayreuth: Johann Nützel, farmer from Mistelbach, and Kunigunde Nützel, farmer's daughter, Protestant. They are accompanied by two bridesmaids, two maids of honour, two ushers, a representative of the bridegroom's father, the father of the bride, the bride's godfather, two children aged 10 and 12, and five musicians, (Hummelmusikanten.)
21) The bridal couple from the royal district court of Rehau: Johann Zech, carpenter journeyman in Rehau, and Margaretha Sammet, agricultural entrepreneur's daughter, Protestant, together with an usher and a bridesmaid.
22) The bridal couple from the royal district court of Wunsiedl: Johann Nikolaus Küspert, farmer from Reichenbach, and Margaretha Barbara Nürnberger, farmer's daughter, Protestant. They are accompanied by an usher, a bridesmaid, the bridegroom's father, the father of the bride, the mother of the bride, and the bride's godfather.

VI. The bridal processions from Middle Franconia.


A flag bearer with the coat of arms of the city of Ansbach.

23) The bridal couple from the royal district court of Eichstätt: Johann Heugl, from Burgheim, and Dorothea Birner, also from there, Catholic. They are followed by a bridesmaid, an usher and two best men.
24) The bridal couple from the royal district court of Nuremberg: Andreas Wolfgang Volland, tenant farmer from Großreuth, and Anna Kunigunde Lauble, Protestant. They are accompanied by an usher, a bridesmaid, a best man, a maid of honour.
25) The bridal couple from the royal district court of Markt-Bibart: Christop Deinlein and Katharina Wolf, both from Sugenheim, Protestant. They are accompanied by an usher, a bridesmaid, and two best men.


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26) The bridal couple from Ellingen mediatised court. Johann Christoph Hartmann, from Suffersheim, and Chrstine Loy, from Oberhöchstadt, Protestant. They are accompanied by a best man, a bridesmaid, a maid of honour, an usher.

VII. The bridal processions from Lower Franconia and Aschaffenburg.


A flag bearer with the coat of arms of the city of Würzburg.

27) The bridal couple from the city of Würzburg: Adam Geist, goods guard from Würzburg, and Sabine Wirth, Catholic, together with two procession escorts and six companions.
28) The bridal couple from the royal district court of Bischofsheim an der Rhön: Jakob Horbett, canvas weaver in Wegfurt, and Eva Motter, Catholic. They are accompanied by two witnesses, a male and female usher, and two escorts.
29) The bridal couple from the royal district court of Werneck: Johann Pfister, farmer from Schnackenwörth, and Margaretha Treutlein, farmer's daughter, Catholic. They are followed by the bride and bridegroom's parents, two procession escorts, two ushers, (slender boy) two bridesmaids, (slender girl) and two close relatives.
30) The bridal couple from the royal district court of Euerdorf: Michael Schubert, farmer from Ebenhausen, and Margaretha Gößmann, Catholic. They are accompanied by two witnesses, two female ushers, and three escorts.

VIII. The bridal processions from Swabia and Neuburg.

A flag bearer with the coat of arms of the county of Burgau.
Music.
A flag bearer with the coat of arms of the city of Augsburg.

31) One bridal couple from the city of Augsburg is: Johann Michael Ragner, construction worker from Augsburg, and Theresia Viktoria Trichter, butcher's daughter, Catholic. Two maids of honour, two witnesses and two bridesmaids accompany them.
32) The second bridal couple from the city of Augsburg. Friedrich Thenn, master butcher in Augsburg, and Rosine Weiß, master cooper's daughter, Protestant. Two maids of honour, two witnesses and two bridesmaids accompany them.

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Six flag bearers with the coats of arms of the cities of Kaufbeuren, Kempten, Lindau, Memmingen, Neuburg and Nördlingen.

33) The bridal couple from the royal district court of Kempten: Konrad Prestel, master shoemaker in Holy Cross, and Maria Merz, day labourer's daughter, Catholic. They are followed by an honorary journeyman, a best man, two witnesses, an usher, a bridesmaid and a maid of honour.
34) The bridal couple from the royal district court of Monheim: Mathias Zollenhofer, lithography quarry worker in Solnhofen and Barbara Rubmann, quarry worker and tailor's daughter, Protestant. Two witnesses, two ushers and two bridesmaids accompany them.
35) The bridal couple from the royal district court of Wertingen: Jakob Saule, small cattle farm owner in Sontheim, and Kreszentia Gerstmayer, shepherd's daughter, Catholic, together with two ushers, two bridesmaids and two witnesses.

The Further Course of Events at the Wedding

In the programme followed, after the description of the bridal procession, the arrangement of the parade to the respective churches and the details of the matrimonial ceremonies. The couples, thereafter, partook of a communal meal in the Pschorrkeller (restaurant of the Pschorr brewery) on Landsbergerstraße and moved from there – in the procession represented by Gustav Kraus – to the Theresienwiese (Theresia Meadow) and passed there the royal family. Similar to what had happened in 1810, a poem was handed over as homage and symbols of the diverse parts of the country were laid down at the tent (in accordance with the depictions on the then newly erected Festsaalbau (Ceremonial Hall Building) of the Münchener Residenz (Munich Residence). To complete the day of festivities the bridal couples – here as well literally in lieu of all of Bavaria – attended the main race together with the ruling family.

[Fortsetzung Programmtext]

§. 3.
Der Zug nimmt den Weg über den Schrannenplatz auf der Seite des königlichen Regierungs-Gebäudes, und an der Hauptwache vorüber, durchzieht hiernach die Kaufinger- und die Neuhauser-Straße, wo die 24 katholischen Brautpaare mit ihrer Begleitung in die weite Gasse einlenken, und durch das Seitenportal in die königliche Hofkirche zum heiligen Michael eintreten, deren Benützung zur Trauung Seine Majestät der König ausnahmsweise allergnädigst zu bewilligen geruht haben.
§. 4.
Die 11 protestantischen Brautpaare nebst ihren Hochzeitszügen setzen den Weg in der Neuhauser-Straße fort und begeben sich durch das Karlstor über den Karlsplatz zu der Pfarrkirche ihrer Confession.
§. 5.
In der Hofkirche zum heiligen Michael stellen sich die Gebirgsschützen und Bergknappen, welche die Brautzüge begleiten, in den Seitengängen, jene auf der Evangelienseite, diese auf der Epistelseite auf.
Die 24 Brautpaare mit ihren Brautzügen nehmen die Plätze in den Kirchenstühlen ein, welche für sie im vordern Theile des Kirchenschiffes in Bereitschaft gehalten sind.
Dem Publikum ist, so viel es der Raum erlaubt, der Zutritt in den untern Theil der Kirche durch die zwei Hauptportale gestattet.
Für die Gallerien rechts und links des Musikchores, so wie für die Seitenstühle im Pres- |9| byterium vertheilt der königliche Obersthofmeister-Stab Billetten, deren Besitzer von der Neuhauserstraße her durch das Gebäude der königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften oder von der Seite der Herzog-Maxburg durch das vormalige Universitäts-Gebäude den Eingang nehmen.
Das aus der weiten Gasse in die Kirche führende Thor, durch welches die Brautzüge eingetreten, bleibt ausschließend für die Allerhöchsten und Höchsten Herrschaften, wenn dieselben das Oratorium benützen wollten, vorbehalten.
§. 6.
Der Trauungsakt in dieser Kirche wird von drey Geistlichen der Dompfarrei zu Unserer Lieben Frau, von 3 Geistlichen der Sankt Peters-Pfarrei und einem der Pfarrei zu Sankt Anna vorgenommen, und zwar am Hochaltare und den 6 vorderen Altären in folgender Weise:
a) Um 10 Uhr tritt die Pfarrgeistlichkeit aus der Sakristei in die Kirche und begibt sich zu dem Hochaltar. Der Prediger an der Hofkirche zu Sankt Michael, als Ceremoniar für diesen Akt gibt hierauf den Zugführern ein Zeichen, wonach diese, jeder die ihm zugewiesenen Brautpaare auf das Presbyterium vorzuführen hat, wo sich alle ausserhalb des Speisegitters aufstellen.
b) Sofort beginnt der Metropolitan-Pfarrvorstand, von den übrigen mitcopulirenden Geistlichen umgeben, den Trauungsakt nach einem kurzen passenden Vorworte mit den ritualmäßigen Anreden an das versammelte Volk sowohl als an die Brautpaare und dem darauf folgenden Gebete.
c) Ist letzteres beendiget, so bleiben die vier Brautpaare Numero 1., 18., 27., 31. von den Städten München, Bamberg, Würzburg und Augsburg, welche der Metropolitan-Pfarr-Vorstand selbst copulieren wird, im Presbyterium stehen, und es tritt eines nach dem anderen mit seinen Zeugen zur Ablegung des Eheversprechens und zur wirklichen Abschließung der ehelichen Verbindung zu dem Hochaltar vor.
d) Die übrigen 6 Pfarrgeistlichen begeben sich zu den ihnen für diesen Akt angewiesenen Altären; die übrigen 20 Brautpaare aber werden von den Zugführern in die früher eingenommenen Plätze in den Stühlen des Kirchenschiffes zurückbegleitet, und dann gleichfalls jedes Brautpaar einzeln und nacheinander dem betreffenden Geistlichen zur Abnahme des Eheversprechens und zur Abschließung der wirklichen ehelichen Verbindung in der Art zugeführt, daß:
1) an dem ersten (Sankt Ignatius) Altare auf der Evangelien-Seite die 4 Paare Numero 2, 8, 16, 35. (Aus den Landgerichten Starnberg, Landshut, Neunburg vorm Wald und Wertingen).
|10| 2) An dem ersten (heiliger Franziskus Xaverius) Altar auf der Epistel-Seite die 4 Paare Numero 3, 7, 23, 33. (Aus dem Landgerichte Schrobenhausen, der Stadt Passau, den Landgerichten Eichstädt und Kempten).
3) An dem zweiten (Namen Jesus) Altar auf der Evangelien-Seite die 3 Paare Numero 4., 10. und 26. (aus den Landgerichten Kronach und Griesbach).
4) An dem zweiten (heilige Dreifaltigkeits-) Altar auf der Epistel-Seite die 3 Paare Numero 5., 11., 28., (aus dem Landgerichte Rosenheim, der Stadt Pirmasens und dem Landgerichte Bischofsheim an der Rhön). -
5) Am dritten (Maria-Verkündigungs-Altar) auf der Evangelienseite die Paare Numero 6., 14. und 29. (aus den Landgerichten Reichenhall, Hemau und Werneck), endlich
6) am dritten (Sankt Peter und Paul) Altar auf der Epistelseite die 3 Paare Numero 9., 15. und 30. (aus den Landgerichten Straubing, Kemnath und Euerdorf) getraut werden.
Jedes copulirte Paar hat sich nach dem mit ihm vollzogenen Trauungsakte wieder auf seinen Platz in den Kirchenstühlen zu begeben.
e) Ist auf diese Weise die Trauung sämmtlicher Brautpaare gehörig vollzogen, so treten dieselben sammt den Pfarrgeistlichen wieder, wie gleich Anfangs, in das Presbyterium vor, wo der Metropolitan-Pfarrvorstand über alle die weiters vorgeschriebenen Gebete verrichtet, und ihnen den kirchlichen Segen ertheilt.
f) Sodann gehen dieselben abermals in die Kirchenstühle zurück, und wohnen der heiligen Messe bei, welche unmittelbar darauf von dem Metropolitanpfarrer auf dem Hochaltare für dieselben gelesen werden wird.
§. 7.
Die protestantischen Brautpaare mit ihrer Begleitung werden in der Pfarrkirche ihrer Confession von 2 Kirchenvorstehern empfangen, durch die Kirche begleitet, und in die für sie bestimmten Plätze eingewiesen.
Der Trauungsakt ist in folgender Ordnung festgesetzt:
a) Bei dem Eintritt des Zuges in die Kirche beginnt das Orgelspiel und dauert fort, bis die Betheiligten sämmtlich ihre Plätze eingenommen haben.
b) Hierauf folgt Gesang der gemeinde oder des Chores, bei dessen Schluß unter fortwährenden Orgelspielen der funktionirende Geistliche den Altar betritt, sämmtliche Brautpaare in der ihnen bezeichneten Reihenfolge die Stufen desselben umgeben und die Brautführer und Brautjungfern sich hinter ihnen aufstellen.
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c) Der funktionirende Geistliche beginnt mit Gebet oder einer kurzen Anrede, verliest die geeigneten Stellen der heiligen Schrift und schließt seinen Vortrag nach der Agende mit dem Vaterunser.
d) Die Brautleute werden nun, je eines nach dem andern vorgerufen, beantworten die an sie gerichteten Fragen, wechseln, wo es möglich ist, die Ringe, reichen sich die Hände, knieen nieder und die Einsegnung findet statt.
e) Nach erfolgter Einsegnung begeben sie sich an ihre Plätze während eines Chorgesangs zurück, der Geistliche spricht das Schlußgebet und Ertheilt den Segen.
§. 8.
Sobald in jeder der beiden Kirchen die Trauung sämmtlicher Paare beendiget ist, was in der protestantischen Kirche bis 11 Uhr, in der katholischen bis gegen 12 Uhr der Fall seyn dürfte, ziehen sämmtliche Brautzüge miteinander und in derselben Ordnung, wie sie die Kirche betreten haben, wieder aus denselben ab.
Sie begeben sich in geordnetem Zuge durch die Bayer- und Landsbergerstraße in das mit hinreichend geräumigen Lokalen versehene Kellergebäude der Bierbrauer Gebrüder Georg und Mathias Pschorr and der Landsbergerstraße unweit der Theresienwiese, um ein kurzes Mittagsessen, welches ihnen von der Stadt München gegeben wird, einzunehmen.
§. 9.
Gegen die Stunde, zu welcher die Abfahrt der Allerhöchsten und Höchsten Herrschaften aus der Residenz zum Oktoberfeste festgesetzt werden wird, ordnet sich der Festzug der Brautleute und deren Begleitung, damit, sobald Seine Majestät der König auf der Festwiese angekommen seyn, und die Erlaubniß allergnädigst ertheilt haben werden, der Zug über die Festwiese und am königlichen Pavillion vorüber sich in Bewegung setzen kann.
§. 10.
Die Ordnung des Zuges ist hiebei dieselbe, wie früher bei dem Kirchenzuge, wird jedoch durch Vortragung einer Standarte mit dem Wappen des Königreichs eröffnet, sowie in dem Zug selbst Fahnen und Standarten mit den Provinzial-Wappen, wie sie in dem Wappenschild des Königreichs aufgenommen sind, dann denen von Städten und Märkten, aus welchen die verschiedenen Brautzüge hieher gekommen sind, gehörigen Ortes eingetheilt.
§. 11.
Am königlichen Pavillion überreicht das Brautpaar der Stadt München Ihren Majestäten dem Könige und der Königin und Ihren Königlichen Hoheiten dem Kronprinzen und der Kronprinzessin ein Huldigungs- und Festgedicht.
|12| Außerdem legen andere acht Brautpaare, je eines aus jedem Regierungsbezirke Emblemen dieser Bezirke, wie sie von den auf dem Saalbau der Königlichen Residenz dahier befindlichen Statuen getragen werden, ehrfurchtsvollst vor Seiner Majestät dem Könige nieder.
§. 12.
Sobald die Brautzüge vor Ihren Majestäten vorübergezogen, stellen sich die Schützen von Lengries, Wackersberg und Reichenhall, sowie die Bergknappen von Amberg am rechten Flügel der auf der Festwiese aufgestellten Landwehrabtheilungen auf; die Brautpaare aber mit ihrer Begleitung begeben sich auf die für sie bereit gehaltenen zwei Tribunen, dem Königlichen Pavillon gegenüber, um dem landwirthschaftlichen Feste und dem Pferderennen als Zuschauer beizuwohnen.

München den 15. Oktober 1842.
Der Magistrat der königlichen Haupt- und Residenzstadt München.
von Steinsdorf, Bürgermeister.

Lachmayr, Sekretär.


EN

[Continuation of programme text]

§. 3.
The procession takes the route over the Schrannenplatz on the side of the royal government building, and past the Hauptwache, then passes along Kaufinger and Neuhauser Straße, where the 24 Catholic bridal couples and their company turn into the wide lane and enter the royal court church of St. Michael through the side portal. His Majesty the King has most graciously deigned to grant the use of this church for the wedding.
§. 4.
The 11 Protestant bridal couples, along with their wedding processions, continue to make their way along Neuhauser Straße and walk through Karlstor via Karlsplatz to their religious confession's parish church.
§. 5.
The mountain troops and miners accompanying the bridal processions stand in the side aisles in the court church of St. Michael, one group on the gospel side, and the other on the epistle side.
The 24 bridal couples with their bridal processions occupy the seats in the church chairs which have been kept ready for them in the front part of the nave.
The public is permitted access to the lower part of the church through the two main portals, as long as the space allows.
The head of the royal Court's staff distributes tickets for the galleries to the right and left of the music choir, as well as for the side chairs in the pres-
|9| bytery. The ticket holders enter from Neuhauser Straße through the royal Academy of Sciences building or from the side of Herzog-Maxburg through the former university building.
The door leading from the wide lane into the church through which the bridal processions enter, is reserved exclusively for the high and mighty rulers, if they wanted to use the oratory.
§. 6.
The wedding ceremony in this church is performed by three clergymen from the cathedral parish church of Our Lady, by three clergymen from St. Peter's parish church and one from St. Anne's parish church, at the high altar and the 6 front altars in the following manner:
a) At 10 a.m. the parish priesthood enters the church from the sacristy and goes to the high altar. As the master of ceremonies, the preacher at the court church of St. Michael gives a sign to the procession leaders that they must present each of the bridal couples assigned to them to the presbytery, where they all stand outside the altar rail.
b) The Metropolitan Parish Council, surrounded by the other clergymen performing the marriages, immediately begins the act of marriage after a short and appropriate foreword with ritual addresses to the assembled people as well as to the bridal couples and the prayers that follow.
c) When the latter is finished, the four bridal couples numbers 1, 18, 27, 31 of the cities of Munich, Bamberg, Würzburg and Augsburg, which the Metropolitan Parish Council itself will marry, remain in the presbytery, and one after the other they will appear with their witnesses to take their marriage vows and actually conclude the conjugal union at the high altar.
d) The other six parish priests go to the altars instructed to them for this act; the other 20 bridal couples, however, are accompanied back to their previously occupied seats in the nave's chairs by the procession leaders, and then each bridal couple is brought individually to the respective priest one after the other in the same way, to take their marriage vows and actually conclude the conjugal union in such a way that the couples are married as follows:
1) at the first (Saint Ignatius) altar on the gospel side the 4 couples numbers 2, 8, 16, 35. (From the district courts of Starnberg, Landshut, Neunburg vorm Wald and Wertingen).

I10I 2) at the first (Saint Francis Xavier) altar on the epistle side the 4 couples numbers 3, 7, 23, 33. (From the district courts Schrobenhausen, the city of Passau, the district courts of Eichstädt and Kempten).
3) at the second (Name of Jesus) altar on the gospel side the 3 couples numbers 4, 10 and 26. (from the district courts of Kronach and Griesbach).
4) at the second (Holy Trinity) altar on the epistle side the 3 couples numbers 5, 11, 28, (from the district court of Rosenheim, the city of Pirmasens and
the district court of Bischofsheim an der Rhön). -
5) at the third (Annunciation) altar on the gospel side the 3 couples numbers 6, 14 and 29. (from the district courts of Reichenhall, Hemau and Werneck), finally
6) at the third (Saint Peter and Paul) altar on the epistle side the 3 couples numbers 9, 15 and 30. (from the district courts of Straubing, Kemnath and Euerdorf).
Each married couple has to return to their seat in the church chairs after the marriage ceremony.
e) Once the wedding of all the bridal couples has been duly carried out in this way, they appear again, as at the beginning, before the parish priest in the presbytery, where the Metropolitan Parish Council will perform the specific prayers and give them the ecclesiastical blessing.
f) Then they return to the church chairs again and attend Holy Mass, which is read for them immediately afterwards by the Metropolitan priest at the High Altar.
§. 7.
The Protestant bridal couples and their wedding party are welcomed in their religious confession's parish church by 2 church leaders, escorted through the church, and shown to their designated seats.
The ceremony is held in the following order:

a) When the procession enters the church, the organ starts playing and continues until everyone involved has taken their seats.
b) This is followed by the congregation or choir singing, at the end of which the clergyman enters the altar while the organ continues playing, all the bridal couples surround the altar steps in the order indicated, and the ushers and bridesmaids line up behind them.

|11| c) The clergyman begins with a prayer or short address, reads the appropriate passages from the Holy Scriptures and closes his sermon after the Agenda with the Lord's Prayer.
d) The bride and bridegroom are now summoned one by one, answering the questions addressed to them, exchanging, where possible, the rings, holding hands, kneeling and being blessed.
e) After the blessing they return to their seats during a song by the choir, the clergyman says the final prayer and gives the blessing.
§. 8.
As soon as all the couples' marriage ceremonies are finished in each of the two churches, which should be by 11 o'clock in the Protestant church, by about 12 o'clock in the Catholic church, all bridal processions leave the church again with each other and in the same order they entered.
They proceed in an orderly fashion along Bayerstraße and Landsbergerstraße to the cellar building owned by the brewery brothers Georg and Mathias Pschorr, with its sufficiently spacious inn on Landsbergerstraße not far from the Theresienwiese, to have a short lunch provided by the city of Munich.
§. 9.
The procession of the bridal couples and their wedding party is arranged around the time that the high and mighty rulers departure from the Residence for the Oktoberfest is planned, so that as soon as His Majesty the King has arrived at the festival ground and has most graciously granted permission, the procession can start to move over the festival ground and past the royal pavilion.
§. 10.
The order of the procession is the same as that of the procession to the Church, but is opened by the presentation of a standard with the Kingdom's coat of arms, and flags and standards with the provincial coat of arms, as they are included in the Kingdom's coat of arms, are then divided into those of cities and markets where the various bridal processions have come from in the procession itself.

§. 11.
At the Royal Pavilion, the bridal couple of the city of Munich present their Majesties the King and Queen and their Royal Highnesses the Crown Prince and the Crown Princess with a poem of homage and celebration.
|12| In addition, another eight bridal couples, one from each administrative district, respectfully lay emblems of their districts down in front of His Majesty the King, just like the ones carried by the statues located here on the Royal Residence's hall.
§. 12.
As soon as the bridal processions pass in front of their Majesties, the marksmen of Lengries, Wackersberg and Reichenhall, as well as the miners of Amberg, line up on the right wing of the Landwehr divisions set up on the festival ground; however, the bridal couples and their wedding parties, go to the two stands kept free for them, opposite the Royal Pavilion, to watch the agricultural celebrations and the horse race as spectators.

Munich 15 October 1842.

The magistrate of the royal capital and residence city of Munich.

von Steinsdorf, Mayor.

Lachmayr, secretary.